Table 1

Demographic and mining characteristics of cases

White (n, %)284 (88.2)
Age at death (years) (mean, SD)71.2 (9.0)
Year of birth (median, IQR)1914 (1906–1920)
Year of death (median, IQR)1984 (1978–1992)
Coal mine experience (n, %)
 Underground only259 (80.4)
 Underground and surface56 (17.4)
 Incomplete data7 (2.2)
Total years of coal mining (mean, SD)*36.3 (9.2)
 Years of underground coal mining†34.5 (10.6)
 Years of surface coal mining†1.8 (5.9)
Ever smoker (n, %)201 (62.4)
States worked‡
 Central Appalachia130 (42.4)
  West Virginia90 (30.0)
  Virginia29 (9.0)
  Kentucky11 (3.4)
 Rest of USA209 (64.9)
  Pennsylvania186 (57.8)
  Ohio13 (4.0)
  Other states§10 (3.1)
 Unknown/incomplete2 (0.6)
  • *Data for n=319 subjects due to incomplete information.

  • †Data for n=315 subjects due to incomplete information.

  • ‡Subject ever had any coal mine employment listed in these states; sum of percentages exceeds 100% because miners may have worked in multiple states.

  • §Other states were Illinois, Alabama, Utah, Colorado and Wyoming.