Table 2

Effects of universal interventions for supporting mental health at the workplace

Subtypes of interventionsOutcome domainSpecific outcome k nSMD (95% CI)P value I 2 (95% CI)Certainty*Source
Psychosocial, physical activity or lifestyle (various types)Positive MHSWB54NA0.51 (0.31 to 0.71)<0.0187 (84 to 90)⊕◯◯◯Sakuraya, 202030
QoL and Funct.QoL9NA0.77 (0.28 to 1.26)0.0282 (67 to 90)⊕◯◯◯
Physical activity or lifestyle (various types)Work relatedWork ability915020.12 (0.01 to 0.22)0.038 (0 to 68)⊕⊕⊕◯Oakman, 201831
Physical activityPositive MHSWB12NA0.58 (NA)0.192 (88 to 95)⊕◯◯◯Sakuraya, 202030
Psychosocial (various types)MH symptomsBurnout (Exhaust.)25NA0.17 (0.03 to 0.32)<0.05NA⊕◯◯◯Maricuţoiu, 201623
Burnout (Depers.)23NA−0.008
(−0.15 to 0.13)
Burnout (Pers. Acc.)23NA0.1 (−0.07 to 0.28)nsNA⊕◯◯◯
Insomnia141620MD (ISI): 2.21 (1.06 to 3.36)0.000288 (82 to 92)⊕◯◯◯Vega-Escaño, 202032
Psychosocial (mindfulness and contemplative)MH symptomsGeneral distress1611610.49 (0.32 to 0.66)NA70 (50 to 82)⊕⊕◯◯Slemp, 201933
Positive MHSWB13NA0.86 (0.19 to 1.53)0.0390 (85 to 94)⊕◯◯◯Sakuraya, 202030
Psychosocial (CBT-based)Positive MHSWB11NA0.22 (0.04 to 0.40)0.0370 (44 to 84)⊕◯◯◯Sakuraya, 202030
Psychosocial (various types, delivered through e-health)MH symptomsStress, depression, psychosocial distress1229540.25 (0.11 to 0.40)<0.00171 (47 to 84)⊕⊕⊕◯Carolan, 201722
Stress13NA0.27 (0.15 to 0.39)<0.00125 (NA)⊕⊕◯◯Phillips, 201933
Depression6NA0.2 (0.03 to 0.35)<0.0541 (NA)⊕⊕◯◯
Anxiety6NA0.2 (−0.04 to 0.44)ns59 (NA)⊕◯◯◯
Burnout—overall2NA0.26 (0.02 to 0.50)<0.050 (NA)⊕⊕◯◯
Insomnia2NA0.45 (−0.16 to 1.06)ns59 (NA)⊕◯◯◯
Positive MHWell-being7NA0.35 (0.25 to 0.46)<0.0010 (NA)⊕⊕◯◯
Mindfulness5NA0.42 (0.24 to 0.6)<0.0010 (NA)⊕⊕◯◯
Work relatedWork effectiveness611160.18 (0.06 to 0.30)0.0030 (0 to 75)⊕⊕⊕⊕Carolan, 201722
(mindfulness and contemplative, delivered through e-health)
MH symptomsDepression, anxiety, stress64140.6 (0.34 to 0.85)<0.0010 (0 to 75)⊕⊕◯◯Stratton, 201729
(CBT, delivered through e-health)
MH symptomsDepression, anxiety, stress617330.15 (0.05 to 0.26)0.00113 (NA)⊕⊕◯◯Stratton, 201729
(stress management, delivered through e-health)
MH symptomsDepression, anxiety, stress41189−0.03 (−0.16 to 0.09)0.570 (NA)⊕◯◯◯Stratton, 201729
  • k is based on the number of comparisons between interventions and control conditions included in the analyses.

  • Subtypes of interventions: This column specifies the major intervention categories (psychosocial, physical activity, lifestyle) as well as the content of the interventions included (eg, CBT-based, mindfulness, etc). When a meta-analysis included various interventions with different contents pooled together, we specified it as ‘various types’. When we specified ‘delivered through e-health’, it meant that all interventions included in a meta-analysis were delivered through e-health technologies.

  • *Certainty levels: ⊕◯◯◯=very low, ⊕⊕◯◯=low, ⊕⊕⊕◯=moderate, ⊕⊕⊕⊕=high.

  • CBT, cognitive–behavioural therapy; Depers., depersonalisation; Exhaust., exhaustion; Funct., functioning; ISI, Insomnia Severity Index; k, number of studies or comparisons included in the analysis; MD, mean difference; MH, mental health; n, number of participants in the analysis; NA, not reported in the review or not possible to impute or calculate; ns, not significant; Pers. Acc., personal accomplishment; QoL, quality of life; SMD, standardised mean difference; SWB, subjective well-being.