Table 4

Effects of indicated interventions for supporting mental health at the workplace

Subtypes of interventionsOutcome domainSpecific outcome k nSMD (95% CI)P value I 2 (95% CI)Certainty*Source
Psychosocial (various types)MH symptomsBurnout (Exhaust.)5NA0.26 (−0.01 to 0.52)nsNA⊕◯◯◯Maricuţoiu, 201623
Burnout (Depers.)5NA0.37 (−0.19 to 0.93)nsNA⊕◯◯◯
Burnout (Pers. Acc.)4NA−0.44 (−1.08 to 0.20)nsNA⊕◯◯◯
Depression1642580.4 (0.25 to 0.54)NA62 (NA)⊕⊕◯◯Nigatu, 201940
Psychosocial (CBT-based)MH symptomsDepression1031340.44 (0.26 to 0.61)NA62 (NA)⊕⊕⊕◯Nigatu, 201940
Psychosocial (various types, delivered through e-health)MH symptomsStress, depression, psychological distress918440.52 (0.28 to 0.75)<0.00183 (69 to 91)⊕◯◯◯Carolan, 201722
Stress9NA0.84 (0.55 to 1.13)<0.00187 (NA)⊕◯◯◯Phillips, 201934
Depression11NA0.4 (0.21 to 0.53)<0.00162 (NA)⊕◯◯◯
Anxiety9NA0.42 (0.23 to 0.61)<0.00170 (NA)⊕◯◯◯
Burnout (overall)6NA0.6 (0.3 to 0.88)<0.00181 (NA)⊕◯◯◯
Insomnia5NA0.8 (0.22 to 1.39)<0.0195 (NA)⊕◯◯◯
Work relatedWork effectiveness714650.32 (0.04 to 0.61)0.0387 (74 to 93)⊕⊕◯◯Carolan, 201722
Psychosocial (CBT-based, delivered through e-health)MH symptomsDepression, anxiety, stress59140.13 (−0.01 to 0.27)0.067 (NA)⊕⊕⊕◯Stratton, 201729
Psychosocial (stress management, delivered through e-health)MH symptomsDepression, anxiety, stress24140.64 (0.43 to 0.85)0.00170 (NA)⊕◯◯◯Stratton, 201730
  • k is based on the number of comparisons between interventions and control conditions included in the analyses.

  • Subtypes of interventions: This column specifies the major intervention categories (psychosocial, physical activity, lifestyle) as well as the content of the interventions included (eg, CBT-based, mindfulness, etc). When a meta-analysis included various interventions with different contents pooled together, we specified it as ‘various types’. When we specified ‘delivered through e-health’, it meant that all interventions included in a meta-analysis were delivered through e-health technologies.

  • *Certainty levels: ⊕◯◯◯=very low, ⊕⊕◯◯=low, ⊕⊕⊕◯=moderate, ⊕⊕⊕⊕=high.

  • Depers., depersonalisation; Exhaust., exhaustion; Funct., functioning; k, number of studies or comparisons included in the analysis; MD, mean difference; MH, mental health; n, number of participants in the analysis; NA, not reported in the review or not possible to impute or calculate; ns, not significant; QoL, quality of life; SMD, standarised mean difference.