Table 4

Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between nature exposure and antihypertensive medication use

 Antihypertensive medication use* Model 1† Model 2‡ Model 3§ OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI Amount of residential green space¶ (n=6031) 1.01 0.95 to 1.07 0.99 0.94 to 1.06 0.99 0.93 to 1.05 Frequency of green space visits (n=5928) Never/<1 time per week ref ref ref ref ref ref 1–2 times/week 0.83 0.69 to 1.00 0.84 0.70 to 1.02 0.84 0.69 to 1.02 3–4 times/week 0.63 0.52 to 0.76 0.64 0.53 to 0.78 0.64 0.52 to 0.78 ≥5 times/week 0.60 0.49 to 0.74 0.60 0.48 to 0.74 0.59 0.48 to 0.74 Green view from home (n=5982) No ref ref ref ref ref ref Yes, I look at it seldom/occasionally 1.07 0.89 to 1.30 1.08 0.89 to 1.31 1.07 0.88 to 1.30 Yes, I look at it often 0.94 0.79 to 1.12 0.95 0.80 to 1.14 0.94 0.79 to 1.13 Amount of residential blue space (n=6031) 0% ref ref ref ref ref ref >0%–10% 1.02 0.88 to 1.19 1.03 0.89 to 1.19 1.03 0.88 to 1.19 >10% 0.93 0.78 to 1.12 1.00 0.82 to 1.21 0.97 0.80 to 1.19 Blue view from home (n=5993) No ref ref ref ref ref ref Yes, I look at it seldom/occasionally 0.83 0.59 to 1.17 0.86 0.61 to 1.21 0.85 0.60 to 1.21 Yes, I look at it often 0.83 0.66 to 1.05 0.88 0.69 to 1.12 0.86 0.68 to 1.10
• *Based on the question ’When was the last time you used the following medication?’ Within the last week/1–4 weeks ago/1–12 months ago=YES; never/more than a year ago=NO.

• †Model 1 (crude) adjusted for age and sex.

• ‡Model 2 adjusted for age, sex, marital status, education, employment status, annual household income, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity at work, using recreational property during warm season and area-level annual mean income.

• §Model 3 (main) adjusted for age, sex, marital status, education, employment status, annual household income, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity at work, using recreational property during warm season, area-level annual mean income, road traffic noise and NO2 from road traffic.

• ¶Within a 1 km radius around the respondent’s home, calculated for 10% increase.