Table 1

Characteristics of firefighters at survey in 2017 with at least one live birth, stratified by employment and wildland firefighter status, n=934*

Employment statusWildland firefighter status†
Volunteer n=116Career n=818Structural n=601Wildland/combination n=331Total n=934
Demographics
Median (IQR)
Age in 201737 (32–46)38 (34–45)41 (35–47)34 (34–38)38 (34–45)
Total pregnancies2 (2–4)2 (1–3)2 (2–3)1 (1–2)2 (1–3)
N (%)
Race
 White109 (96)759 (94)548 (92)319 (97)868 (93)
 Black018 (2)17 (3)1 (<1)18 (2)
 Asian03 (<1)2 (<1)1 (<1)3 (<1)
 Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander1 (1)3 (<1)2 (<1)2 (1)4 (<1)
 American Indian or Alaska Native04 (<1)2 (<1)1 (<1)4 (<1)
 Other4 (4)24 (3)22 (4)6 (2)28 (3)
 Missing27819
Hispanic, Latina or Spanish4 (3)40 (5)35 (6)8 (2)44 (5)
 Missing24516
BMI
 ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 34 (29)443 (54)218 (36)258 (78)477 (51)
 25–29.9 kg/m2 39 (34)256 (31)247 (41)47 (14)295 (32)
 ≥ 30 kg/m2 43 (37)119 (15)136 (23)26 (8)162 (17)
Highest education completed
 Some college or less73 (63)488 (60)308 (51)252 (76)561 (60)
 College and above43 (37)330 (40)293 (49)79 (24)373 (40)
Married or in partnership87 (75)667 (82)458 (76)295 (89)745 (81)
Household income
 >US$75 00062 (54)532 (65)503 (84)90 (27)594 (64)
 ≤US$75 00053 (46)285 (35)96 (16)241 (73)338 (36)
 Missing11202
Smoking status
 Current14 (12)21 (3)31 (5)3 (1)35 (4)
 Former34 (29)128 (16)135 (22)27 (8)162 (17)
 Never68 (59)669 (82)435 (72)301 (91)737 (79)
Menopausal status
 Premenopausal76 (70)624 (78)418 (72)282 (87)700 (77)
 Perimenopausal14 (13)82 (10)76 (13)19 (6)96 (11)
 Postmenopausal19 (17)92 (12)88 (15)22 (7)111 (12)
 Missing72019827
Occupational factors in 2017
N (%)
Employment status
 Volunteer116 (100)90 (15)26 (8)116 (12)
 Career818 (100)511 (85)305 (92)818 (88)
Participate in wildland fire activity
 No (structural)90 (78)511 (63)601 (100)601 (64)
 Yes (combination)23 (20)287 (35)310 (94)310 (33)
 Yes (wildland)3 (3)18 (2)21 (6)21 (2)
 Missing022
Current rank
 Firefighter58 (50)310 (38)133 (22)234 (71)368 (39)
 Firefighter/paramedic23 (20)187 (23)177 (29)33 (10)215 (23)
 Driver operator4 (3)65 (8)53 (9)16 (5)69 (7)
 Lieutenant7 (6)75 (9)69 (11)12 (4)82 (9)
 Captain5 (4)88 (11)69 (11)24 (7)93 (10)
 Chief11 (9)81 (9)74 (12)8 (2)82 (9)
 Paramedic3 (3)3 (<1)6 (1)0 (0)6 (1)
 Other5 (4)18 (2)20 (3)3 (1)23 (2)
 Missing01011
Shift schedule (career only)
 24 hours or more on shift662 (81)384 (75)277 (91)662 (81)
 Less than 24 hours on shift154 (19)125 (25)28 (9)154 (19)
 Missing2202
Department policy regarding pregnancy and/or maternity‡
 Yes45 (39)644 (79)400 (67)287 (87)689 (74)
 No55 (26)158 (19)177 (29)36 (11)213 (23)
 Don’t know16 (14)16 (2)24 (4)8 (2)32 (3)
Occupational factors for most recent pregnancy
Median (IQR)
Age at pregnancy28 (26–33)32 (30–34)32 (28–35)32 (32–32)32 (29–34)
Years since most recent pregnancy8 (3–14)5 (2–12)8 (3–14)2 (2–7)6 (2–12)
Number of fire responses during pregnancy2 (0–4)3 (0–8)1 (0–3)8 (3-8)3 (0–8)
 Missing81918927
N (%)
Work restricted during pregnancy67 (58)651 (80)426 (71)291 (88)718 (77)
 Missing34437
Time when work was restricted
 No restriction42 (39)161 (20)165 (28)37 (11)203 (22)
 3rd trimester7 (7)34 (4)31 (5)10 (3)41 (4)
 2nd trimester25 (23)396 (49)178 (30)243 (74)421 (46)
 1st trimester33 (31)217 (27)212 (36)37 (11)250 (27)
 Missing91015419
Work restricted by doctor§24 (36)366 (56)155 (36)235 (81)390 (54)
Work restricted by department§15 (23)286 (44)82 (20)218 (75)301 (42)
Work restricted by self§35 (52)292 (45)273(64)54 (19)327 (46)
  • Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. Frequencies are calculated excluding missing values.

  • Combination= does wildland firefighting in addition to working for a career or volunteer department.

  • *All data were collected at time of survey in 2017 unless otherwise noted.

  • †Two firefighters did not report a wildland firefighter status and are not included in these columns.

  • ‡Firefighters were asked to report if their department had policies relating to pregnancy or maternity. Further information was not collected.

  • §Among firefighters who reported that they restricted their work during pregnancy (n=718).

  • BMI, body mass index.