Table 4

Associations between occupational herbicide use and risk of all NHL (ORs and 95% CIs)*

CasesHerbicidesPhenoxy herbicides2,4-DOther phenoxy herbicidesGlyphosate
OR (95% CI)CasesOR (95% CI)CasesOR (95% CI)CasesOR (95% CI)CasesOR (95% CI)
Lagged exposure windows†‡
 >0–5 years2021.07 (0.78 to 1.47)1001.55 (0.99 to 2.42)601.53 (0.83 to 2.84)190.54 (0.16 to 1.82)1460.85 (0.60 to 1.20)
 >5–10 years2220.91 (0.64 to 1.29)1060.72 (0.44 to 1.18)750.76 (0.41 to 1.41)232.20 (0.53 to 9.08)1691.14 (0.78 to 1.67)
 >10–20 years3181.20 (0.92 to 1.56)1701.02 (0.72 to 1.44)1380.97 (0.66 to 1.43)341.18 (0.49 to 2.83)1991.08 (0.79 to 1.49)
 >20 years4450.92 (0.75 to 1.12)2901.00 (0.79 to 1.28)2341.03 (0.78 to 1.36)680.75 (0.50 to 1.12)1460.84 (0.62 to 1.13)
Decades of use
 Before 19601620.81 (0.61 to 1.09)990.73 (0.51 to 1.04)730.70 (0.46 to 1.06)220.53 (0.27 to 1.02)0
 1960s2811.31 (0.98 to 1.75)1821.41 (0.99 to 1.99)1391.57 (1.05 to 2.35)511.59 (0.89 to 2.84)0
 1970s3370.87 (0.65 to 1.17)2061.09 (0.77 to 1.55)1681.12 (0.76 to 1.65)490.73 (0.39 to 1.38)1071.17 (0.82 to 1.65)
 1980s3611.03 (0.79 to 1.36)1930.78 (0.55 to 1.12)1580.77 (0.52 to 1.15)362.69 (1.06 to 6.81)1780.85 (0.63 to 1.16)
 1990s2950.82 (0.63 to 1.06)1550.99 (0.69 to 1.42)1130.93 (0.60 to 1.44)160.32 (0.11 to 0.94)2220.85 (0.62 to 1.15)
 2000s or later1211.78 (1.26 to 2.52)631.30 (0.82 to 2.07)491.32 (0.76 to 2.28)30.79 (0.15 to 4.15)1321.24 (0.87 to 1.76)
  • Lagged exposure windows and decades of use for selected herbicides.

  • *ORs and 95% CIs from logistic regression models, with adjustment for study centre, age, gender, socioeconomic status, race/Hispanic ethnicity, farming work history and a set of covariates for use of other pesticides.

  • †Exposure windows for timing of herbicide use before the reference date (diagnosis date for cases or corresponding reference date for controls).

  • ‡Modelled as a set of indicator variables; participants could be exposed in multiple lagged exposure windows or decades.

  • 2,4-D, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; NHL, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.