Table 1

Case-control studies participating in the International Lymphoma Epidemiology study of herbicides*

Study abbreviation (citation)LAMMCC
(Nuyujukian et al, 2014)
(Bernstein et al, 1992)
(Miligi et al, 2003)
(Zhang et al, 2004, Koutros et al, 2009)
(Hartge et al, 2005)
(Cocco et al, 2013)
(Fritschi et al, 2005)
(Orsi et al, 2009)
(Cerhan et al, 2011)
(Weber et al, 2018)
Location(s)USA: Los Angeles CountyUSA: Los Angeles CountyItaly: Firenze, Forli, Imperia, Latina, Novara, Ragusa, Siena, Torino, VeronaUSA: ConnecticutUSA: Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles County, SeattleEurope: Czech Republic, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, SpainAustralia:
New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory
France: Bordeaux, Brest, Caen, Lille, Nantes, ToulouseUSA: Minnesota, Iowa, WisconsinCanada: British Columbia
Case diagnosis years1980–19901988–19911990–19941996–20021998–20001998–20031999–20012000–20042002–20122009–2013
Source of controlsPopulationPopulationPopulationPopulationPopulationPopulation or hospitalPopulationHospitalClinicPopulation
Control matching to casesPair-matched by age, sex, race, neighbourhoodPair-matched by age, sex, race, neighbourhoodFrequency-matched by age, sexFrequency-matched by age; females onlyFrequency-matched by age, sex, racePair-matched or frequency-matched by age, sex, regionFrequency-matched by age, sex, regionPair-matched by age, sex, regionFrequency-matched by age, sex, regionFrequency-matched by age, sex
Participants queried regarding occupational pesticidesAllAllEver worked in agricultureAllAllAllEver worked as farmer, pesticide applicator or gardenerEver worked as farmer or gardener for at least 6 monthsEver worked on a farm or with pesticides for >1 yearEver lived on a farm or worked in agriculture, gardening, parks, golf courses or forestry
Basis for pesticide use classificationSelf-report
(closed-ended questions on pesticides exposed to at work)
(open-ended question on pesticides directly exposed to at work)
Expert-assessment (open-ended questions on products used at work and additional farming questionnaire; responses checked against a crop-exposure matrix)Self-report
(open-ended questions on exposures at work or home and additional farming questionnaire for pesticides handled, with provided list of frequently used pesticides as a prompt)
(open-ended question on chemicals/materials handled at work)
Expert-assessment (open-ended questions on products used at work and additional job-specific module farming questionnaire; responses checked against product availability dates and a crop-exposure matrix, with the support of agronomists)Expert-assessment (open-ended questions on specific pesticides personally mixed or applied from job-specific questionnaire; responses checked against product availability dates and a crop-exposure matrix)—any herbicides and phenoxy herbicides only; other herbicides assessed by self-reportExpert-assessment (open-ended questions about products used at work and additional farming questionnaire; responses checked against product availability dates, type and size of crops, geographic location and treatment frequency)Self-report
(closed-ended questions on pesticides personally mixed or applied)
(open-ended questions on pesticides personally applied, mixed or loaded at work or when living on a farm)
Included in the pooled study (Ns)
Case subtypes (% of all cases)
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma/mantle cell lymphoma/prolymphocytic leukaemia0%0%9.3%8.5%14.2%23.8%7.4%24.3%34.8%0%
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma0%35.9%†21.2%24.3%30.8%25.6%33.3%26.5%19.1%0%
Follicular lymphoma0%10.6%8.2%17.6%24.6%12.5%36.2%12.4%24.7%0%
Multiple myeloma100%0%14.2%23.2%0%13.8%0%13.9%0%100%
Other B-cell lymphoma0%27.2%2.6%7.6%14.8%17.4%15.4%14.9%10.2%0%
T-cell lymphoma0%0.3%4.5%4.4%6.2%6.6%3.5%5.2%4.6%0%
Control characteristics
Age in years (mean (SD))61.2 (9.0)51.1 (14.4)55.0 (13.7)61.3 (14.2)58.1 (12.3)56.2 (16.0)56.3 (12.0)52.5 (13.5)61.6 (13.1)65.6 (8.0)
Male gender (%)54.7%49.2%55.4%0%53.4%53.6%57.7%100%53.3%57.4%
Non-white race or Hispanic ethnicity (%)32.0%23.9%0%8.1%21.4%1.5% ‡12.9%0.4%2.4%9.4%
Low socioeconomic status (%)46.4%32.3%57.3%36.7%37.2%45.5%33.7%27.7%23.0%29.4%
Farming job, ever (%)10.4%6.5%31.4%2.1%9.5%17.1%15.1%18.1%15.6%7.0%
Occupational pesticide use, ever (%)5.0%8.3%26.7%11.9%11.2%8.5%10.5%10.5%14.2%5.1%
Occupational insecticide use, ever (%)2.2%3.8%6.3%8.2%6.7%2.0%8.6%8.3%12.1%3.8%
Occupational herbicide use, ever (%)1.4%1.6%5.2%6.2%5.2%2.0%4.8%9.4%13.6%3.5%
  • *Studies are ordered in table by the earliest case diagnosis year.

  • †The LANHL study included intermediate-grade and high-grade NHL diagnosed in HIV-negative individuals, to correspond to a concurrent study protocol of HIV-related NHL.

  • ‡Assumed non-white race.

  • BCMM, British Columbia Cancer Agency Study of Multiple Myeloma; ENGELA, L’Etude des Facteurs Environmentaux et Genetique des Lymphomes de l’Adulte; LAMMCC, Los Angeles County Multiple Myeloma Case-Control Study; LANHL, Los Angeles County Study of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; NCI-SEER, National Cancer Institute-Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Program Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study; NHL, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; NSW, New South Wales Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study.