Table 3

Associations between occupational herbicide use and risk of NHL and NHL subtypes (ORs and 95% CIs)*

ExposureControlsAll NHLCLLDLBCLFLOBCLMMTCLAdjustments for other pesticides
CasesOR (95% CI)CasesOR (95% CI)CasesOR (95% CI)CasesOR (95% CI)CasesOR (95% CI)CasesOR (95% CI)CasesOR (95% CI)
Herbicides, any†
10 studies: BCMM, ENGELA, Epilymph, Italian, LANHL, LAMMCC, Mayo, NCI-SEER, NSW, Yale
Never903085851 (referent)14731 (referent)20311 (referent)14511 (referent)14821 (referent)12991 (referent)4221 (referent)OP insecticides,
OC insecticides,
any other pesticide
Ever5966441.10 (0.94 to 1.29)1650.99 (0.74 to 1.31)1291.07 (0.82 to 1.39)1361.13 (0.85 to 1.52)991.08 (0.80 to 1.44)561.18 (0.81 to 1.71)341.40 (0.87 to 2.27)
Duration
≤12 years3023231.11 (0.92 to 1.33)781.03 (0.74 to 1.42)631.02 (0.75 to 1.40)781.25 (0.91 to 1.72)440.97 (0.67 to 1.39)301.13 (0.72 to 1.79)171.31 (0.74 to 2.31)
>12 to 25.51571821.23 (0.95 to 1.58)581.14 (0.77 to 1.69)351.24 (0.81 to 1.90)280.93 (0.57 to 1.50)341.41 (0.91 to 2.20)91.00 (0.44 to 2.24)132.21 (1.11 to 4.41)
>25.51321290.94 (0.71 to 1.25)280.66 (0.40 to 1.07)291.05 (0.66 to 1.67)270.99 (0.60 to 1.65)180.87 (0.50 to 1.52)171.44 (0.75 to 2.80)30.62 (0.18 to 2.10)
p-trend=0.94‡p-trend=0.19p-trend=0.61p-trend=0.70p-trend=0.85p-trend=0.31p-trend=0.80
Phenoxy herbicides
10 studies: BCMM, ENGELA, Epilymph, Italian, LANHL, LAMMCC, Mayo, NCI-SEER, NSW, Yale
Never9256883415242089150915181327433OP insecticides,
OC insecticides,
glyphosate,
any other pesticide
Ever3703951.12 (0.90 to 1.38)1141.05 (0.73 to 1.50)711.04 (0.73 to 1.49)780.75 (0.52 to 1.11)631.28 (0.87 to 1.88)281.43 (0.85 to 2.40)231.85 (0.98 to 3.48)
Duration
≤8 years1881951.11 (0.86 to 1.42)601.12 (0.74 to 1.69)310.93 (0.59 to 1.47)420.80 (0.51 to 1.24)271.10 (0.68 to 1.79)131.25 (0.62 to 2.51)111.61 (0.75 to 3.46)
>8 to 25.51051201.22 (0.89 to 1.67)351.07 (0.65 to 1.75)221.19 (0.70 to 2.04)190.68 (0.38 to 1.22)251.81 (1.06 to 3.08)51.46 (0.52 to 4.15)92.53 (1.08 to 5.93)
>25.570721.01 (0.69 to 1.46)180.84 (0.46 to 1.53)161.20 (0.65 to 2.23)140.71 (0.36 to 1.38)101.01 (0.49 to 2.09)101.78 (0.74 to 4.27)20.89 (0.20 to 4.01)
p-trend=0.71p-trend=0.57p-trend=0.42p-trend=0.25p-trend=0.38p-trend=0.15p-trend=0.49
2,4-D
7 studies: BCMM, Epilymph, Italian, LANHL, Mayo, NCI-SEER, NSW
Never790874771371181413351391836379OP insecticides,
OC insecticides,
other phenoxy herbicides,
glyphosate,
any other pesticide
Ever2873001.10 (0.85 to 1.43)1031.14 (0.76 to 1.70)511.10 (0.70 to 1.74)660.89 (0.57 to 1.38)501.44 (0.89 to 2.32)91.19 (0.43 to 3.29)120.62 (0.26 to 1.44)
Duration
≤8 years1501501.06 (0.79 to 1.44)581.20 (0.77 to 1.88)210.93 (0.53 to 1.64)350.88 (0.53 to 1.46)221.19 (0.67 to 2.11)30.55 (0.13 to 2.34)70.73 (0.28 to 1.90)
>8 to 25.588951.14 (0.79 to 1.64)301.02 (0.59 to 1.75)181.32 (0.70 to 2.46)160.72 (0.37 to 1.37)211.96 (1.05 to 3.67)2.54 (0.68 to 9.53)0.51 (0.17 to 1.55)
>25.545511.14 (0.71 to 1.83)151.18 (0.58 to 2.41)111.47 (0.67 to 3.21)131.19 (0.56 to 2.52)61.06 (0.40 to 2.81)
p-trend=0.49p-trend=0.91p-trend=0.21p-trend=0.92p-trend=0.32p-trend=0.18p-trend=0.27
Other phenoxy herbicides
7 studies: BCMM, Epilymph, Italian, LANHL, Mayo, NCI-SEER, NSW
Never8385797114601850138814231114383OP insecticides,
OC insecticides,
2,4-D,
glyphosate,
any other pesticide
Ever88810.85 (0.61 to 1.19)140.67 (0.36 to 1.25)150.85 (0.47 to 1.56)130.80 (0.42 to 1.52)180.83 (0.46 to 1.50)60.65 (0.21 to 1.97)82.71 (1.16 to 6.33)
Duration
≤6.5 years50330.63 (0.40 to 1.00)70.54 (0.23 to 1.26)60.63 (0.26 to 1.53)50.48 (0.18 to 1.25)60.59 (0.24 to 1.46)42.60 (0.85 to 7.95)
>6.537461.13 (0.71 to 1.79)70.92 (0.39 to 2.17)81.05 (0.46 to 2.38)81.41 (0.61 to 3.26)111.01 (0.47 to 2.17)42.94 (0.94 to 9.23)
p-trend=0.77p-trend=0.69p-trend=0.98p-trend=0.56p-trend=0.96p-trend=0.05
Glyphosate
8 studies: BCMM, ENGELA, Epilymph, Italian, Mayo, NCI-SEER, NSW, Yale
Never8636824115321968145714351066437OP insecticides,
OC insecticides,
phenoxy herbicides,
any other pesticide
Ever3403451.03 (0.83 to 1.29)1060.91 (0.63 to 1.30)600.96 (0.66 to 1.42)911.42 (0.98 to 2.05)460.97 (0.63 to 1.49)140.74 (0.38 to 1.46)180.99 (0.50 to 1.99)
Duration
≤8 years2072191.11 (0.87 to 1.43)711.04 (0.70 to 1.53)381.04 (0.67 to 1.59)661.66 (1.12 to 2.45)210.77 (0.45 to 1.31)70.66 (0.27 to 1.63)111.00 (0.46 to 2.18)
>8 to 15.569680.96 (0.65 to 1.42)230.88 (0.49 to 1.57)120.92 (0.47 to 1.84)120.89 (0.44 to 1.79)131.30 (0.66 to 2.59)20.80 (0.17 to 3.66)51.29 (0.44 to 3.75)
>15.556550.90 (0.59 to 1.37)120.57 (0.28 to 1.16)90.78 (0.36 to 1.69)121.06 (0.52 to 2.17)111.34 (0.64 to 2.80)50.85 (0.28 to 2.60)20.65 (0.14 to 3.01)
p-trend=0.54p-trend=0.12p-trend=0.51p-trend=0.64p-trend=0.27p-trend=0.68p-trend=0.83
Triazine herbicides
6 studies: BCMM, ENGELA, Epilymph, Italian, Mayo, NCI-SEER
Never805075911491180213701366895399OP insecticides,
OC insecticides,
phenoxy herbicides,
glyphosate,
any other pesticide
Ever2202220.91 (0.70 to 1.18)811.05 (0.71 to 1.55)380.88 (0.55 to 1.39)420.75 (0.48 to 1.17)350.94 (0.58 to 1.54)60.75 (0.28 to 2.01)120.91 (0.40 to 2.04)
Duration
≤10 years1141080.86 (0.62 to 1.20)400.99 (0.61 to 1.59)170.78 (0.43 to 1.42)190.61 (0.34 to 1.08)180.98 (0.54 to 1.80)31.22 (0.32 to 4.63)71.03 (0.40 to 2.69)
>101051130.95 (0.69 to 1.32)411.11 (0.70 to 1.78)200.95 (0.54 to 1.67)230.93 (0.53 to 1.61)170.93 (0.50 to 1.72)30.53 (0.14 to 2.00)50.79 (0.27 to 2.27)
p-trend=0.86p-trend=0.65p-trend=0.93p-trend=0.96p-trend=0.81p-trend=0.36p-trend=0.64
Atrazine
3 studies: Italian, Mayo, NCI-SEER
Never5183523593011951076967250OP insecticides,
OC insecticides,
phenoxy herbicides,
glyphosate,
any other pesticide
Ever1781740.85 (0.63 to 1.14)670.93 (0.61 to 1.43)260.68 (0.40 to 1.17)360.68 (0.42 to 1.10)270.90 (0.52 to 1.56)90.85 (0.33 to 2.15)
Duration
≤8 years96860.77 (0.53 to 1.11)360.88 (0.53 to 1.46)100.51 (0.24 to 1.07)170.56 (0.30 to 1.03)120.78 (0.38 to 1.59)61.02 (0.35 to 2.94)
>880870.95 (0.66 to 1.37)311.00 (0.59 to 1.70)150.84 (0.44 to 1.61)190.85 (0.46 to 1.55)151.07 (0.55 to 2.09)30.64 (0.17 to 2.42)
p-trend=0.88p-trend=0.96p-trend=0.70p-trend=0.71p-trend=0.79p-trend=0.51
Amide herbicides
4 studies: ENGELA, Italian, Mayo, NCI-SEER
Never526652691034130611321035270OP insecticides,
OC insecticides,
phenoxy herbicides,
glyphosate,
any other pesticide
Ever1711530.74 (0.55 to 1.00)610.85 (0.55 to 1.31)220.58 (0.33 to 1.00)300.59 (0.36 to 0.99)190.61 (0.34 to 1.10)101.14 (0.46 to 2.82)
Duration
≤8 years92940.86 (0.60 to 1.24)431.11 (0.68 to 1.82)120.65 (0.33 to 1.31)160.57 (0.31 to 1.07)90.55 (0.25 to 1.20)
>877560.59 (0.40 to 0.89)170.54 (0.29 to 1.00)90.47 (0.22 to 1.01)140.65 (0.34 to 1.27)90.62 (0.28 to 1.34)
p-trend=0.01p-trend=0.05p-trend=0.05p-trend=0.20p-trend=0.20
Alachlor
3 studies: Italian, Mayo, NCI-SEER
Never41814207893976838848227OP insecticides,
OC insecticides,
phenoxy herbicides,
glyphosate,
any other pesticide
Ever1261230.84 (0.60 to 1.18)530.96 (0.60 to 1.51)160.58 (0.30 to 1.09)250.63 (0.36 to 1.10)150.79 (0.40 to 1.55)81.47 (0.53 to 4.12)
Duration
≤8 years79840.92 (0.62 to 1.35)391.11 (0.67 to 1.86)100.62 (0.29 to 1.33)160.64 (0.33 to 1.21)70.58 (0.24 to 1.40)
>844360.70 (0.43 to 1.16)130.69 (0.34 to 1.39)50.46 (0.17 to 1.24)90.67 (0.30 to 1.48)71.07 (0.44 to 2.63)
p-trend=0.19p-trend=0.48p-trend=0.07p-trend=0.16p-trend=0.71
Trifluralin
6 studies: BCMM, Italian, Mayo, NCI-SEER, NSW, Yale
Never591960521016138812291053742295OP insecticides,
OC insecticides,
phenoxy herbicides,
glyphosate,
any other pesticide
Ever1481300.75 (0.55 to 1.00)470.85 (0.55 to 1.32)210.70 (0.41 to 1.21)190.41 (0.24 to 0.72)210.81 (0.46 to 1.41)51.07 (0.38 to 3.05)80.96 (0.39 to 2.37)
Duration
≤8 years87760.77 (0.53 to 1.11)340.99 (0.60 to 1.63)80.49 (0.22 to 1.08)110.40 (0.20 to 0.79)120.89 (0.44 to 1.80)21.17 (0.25 to 5.54)51.05 (0.36 to 3.07)
>860500.67 (0.44 to 1.02)130.63 (0.32 to 1.25)110.81 (0.40 to 1.64)70.39 (0.17 to 0.91)80.65 (0.29 to 1.45)30.96 (0.26 to 3.61)30.83 (0.23 to 3.01)
p-trend=0.05p-trend=0.19p-trend=0.49p-trend=0.02p-trend=0.29p-trend=0.97p-trend=0.78
Dicamba
4 studies: Italian, Mayo, NCI-SEER, NSW
Never56025657948133711261076254OP insecticides,
OC insecticides,
phenoxy herbicides,
glyphosate,
any other pesticide
Ever1311200.79 (0.57 to 1.10)490.87 (0.55 to 1.38)160.60 (0.32 to 1.14)250.64 (0.37 to 1.10)180.92 (0.49 to 1.74)60.78 (0.27 to 2.22)
Duration
≤8 years75710.79 (0.53 to 1.18)351.04 (0.61 to 1.76)70.46 (0.19 to 1.08)130.55 (0.28 to 1.08)100.90 (0.41 to 1.96)30.62 (0.16 to 2.35)
>854460.77 (0.49 to 1.21)130.61 (0.30 to 1.22)80.76 (0.33 to 1.74)110.76 (0.36 to 1.59)81.00 (0.43 to 2.33)31.08 0.28 to 4.15)
p-trend=0.25p-trend=0.16p-trend=0.48p-trend=0.45p-trend=1.00p-trend=0.92
Pendimethalin
3 studies: Italian, Mayo, NCI-SEER
Never42504272921982855857230OP insecticides,
OC insecticides,
phenoxy herbicides,
glyphosate,
any other pesticide
Ever57580.94 (0.61 to 1.44)251.11 (0.63 to 1.94)101.03 (0.48 to 2.21)80.48 (0.21 to 1.07)60.67 (0.27 to 1.70)51.92 (0.61 to 6.04)
Duration
≤4 years33230.63 (0.35 to 1.14)110.82 (0.38 to 1.76)30.52 (0.15 to 1.81)40.40 (0.14 to 1.21)
>424311.16 (0.64 to 2.07)141.44 (0.69 to 3.01)51.19 (0.42 to 3.35)40.57 (0.19 to 1.73)
p-trend=0.97p-trend=0.47p-trend=0.96p-trend=0.14
Paraquat
5 studies: BCMM, Italian, Mayo, NCI-SEER, NSW
Never5335537899312161104987565257OP insecticides,
OC insecticides,
phenoxy herbicides,
glyphosate,
any other pesticide
Ever26311.17 (0.67 to 2.04)40.58 (0.19 to 1.74)51.09 (0.40 to 2.98)81.44 (0.61 to 3.41)71.48 (0.60 to 3.64)32.03 (0.34 to 12.3)21.68 (0.36 to 7.81)
Duration
≤4.5 years15131.01 (0.47 to 2.19)20.50 (0.11 to 2.23)41.32 (0.42 to 4.18)31.60 (0.43 to 5.97)
>4.511171.26 (0.57 to 2.78)20.72 (0.15 to 3.55)41.61 (0.46 to 5.66)41.42 (0.43 to 4.70)
p-trend=0.58p-trend=0.53p-trend=0.42p-trend=0.52
  • *ORs and 95% CIs from logistic regression models, with adjustment for study centre, age, gender, socioeconomic status, race/Hispanic ethnicity, farming work history and a set of covariates for use of other pesticides.

  • †Three-category duration variable results are shown if there were at least 50 exposed NHL cases in the highest category; otherwise, two-category duration results are shown.

  • ‡P value for a continuous variable with values set as the median of each duration category.

  • §Categories collapsed if included 0 or 1 cases.

  • CLL, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; DLBCL, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; FL, follicular lymphoma; MM, multiple myeloma; NHL, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; OBCL, other B-cell lymphoma; TCL, T-cell lymphoma.