Table 1

Characteristics of studies evaluating adverse occupational health outcomes in Indigenous workers employed in the USA, Australia, New Zealand and Canada: 1970–2020

CharacteristicNo (%) of n=51)
Publication year
 <19903 (5.9)
 1990–19998 (15.7)
 2000–200916 (31.4)
 2010–202024 (47.1)
Publication type
 Journal article43 (84.3)
 Non-peer-reviewed report8 (15.7)
Country (study indigenous population references)
 Australia (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, Aboriginal)7 (13.7)
 Canada (Canadian Indigenous, Canadian Aboriginal, Indigenous to North America)6 (11.8)
 New Zealand (Māori)6 (11.8)
 USA (American Indian and Alaskan Native, American Indian, Alaskan native, Native American, Native Hawaiian or Pacific islander, Aleut, Eskimo)32 (62.7)
Data source
 National data or representative sample17 (33.3)
 Multisite medical records7 (13.7)
 Single-site medical records5 (9.8)
 State data or representative sample5 (9.8)
 Community sample5 (9.8)
 Workers compensation4 (7.8)
 Multiple workplace survey3 (5.9)
 Coronial records3 (5.9)
 Single workplace survey2 (3.9)
Indigenous case participants
 Not stated6 (11.8)
 1–107 (13.7)
 11–506 (11.8)
 51–1008 (15.7)
 101–50018 (35.3)
 >5016 (11.8)
Exposure
 General hazards (no specific hazard)11 (21.6)
 Physical hazards33 (64.7)
 Mining hazards (uranium, asbestos, silica)10 (19.6)
 Biological hazards4 (7.8)
 Chemical hazards2 (3.9)
 Psychological hazards1 (2.0)
Industry
 General employment/no specific industry listed25 (49)
 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction8 (15.7)
 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting6 (11.8)
 Public administration3 (5.9)
 Arts, entertainment and recreation3 (5.9)
 Manufacturing3 (5.9)
 Construction1 (5.9)
 Healthcare and social assistance1 (2.0)
 Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services1 (2.0)