Table 2

Summary of incidence rates of adverse health outcomes among Indigenous workers as reported in studies included in the scoping review involving workers employed in the USA, Australia, NZ and Canada: 1970–2020

Author and year

Data source*Health outcomeRate usedIndigenous rateRate in reference group
Crandall, et al. 1997
8Workplace fatalityFarming and non-farming Mortality rates per 100 000 worker years.51.2 (farming)
3.1 (non-farming)
21.8 (farming)
6.2 (non-farming)
Crichlow, et al. 20061Concussion and musculoskeletal injuriesInjuries per 100 rodeo participations14NP
Culp, et al. 20083All work-related injuriesInjury rate per 200 000 person hours work38.6325.16
Edwards, V. E. et al 19702Cryptococcal infection of the nervous system9-year incidence rate per 100 000 of population25.91.5
El-Tras, W. F. et al 20186Leptospirosis infection2010–2015 incidence of leptospirosis in NZ per 100 0001.851.91
Goldcamp E. M. et al 6All work-related Injury/IllnessNonfatal injury rate per 1000 workers17.87.7 (African American)
Goldcamp E. M. et al, 20066All work-related injury/illnesswork injuries per 1000 household youth17.78.4 (all other racial minorities)
Harrell, E. 20116Workplace violenceRate of work nonfatal violence per 1000 employed persons135.7
Harrell, E. 20136Workplace violenceworkplace violence per 1000 workers42.5 (government employees) 19.1 (private employees)25 (government)
6.7 (private)
Hoiberg A. et al, 19814All work-related injury/illnessAnnual hospitalisation rates per 10 000 men9231109
Jin A. et al, 20145All work-related injury/illnessWorker compensation injuries in British Columbia (BC) per 10 000 person-years115.6146.6 (total, all ethnicities)
Jones B. A, 20174Years of life lostExcess mortality per 100 000 miners over 1960–20059268.318 612.3
Keppel et al, 20026Workplace fatalityWork-related deaths per 100 000 population1.72.9
Kool, B. et al 20172Work-related injury requiring hospital admissionWork related injury hospitalisation rate per 100 000 workers161.2140.8
Lilley R. et al, 20208Workplace fatality2005–2014 work-related fatal injuries per 100 000 worker-years5.23.9
McCracken, S. et al 20018Workplace fatalityFatal injuries per 100 000 workers/year6.604.96
Schubauer-Berigan et al, 20092Lung cancerIndirectly standardised mortality ratios—no of observed deaths divided by the number expected3.18 (1960–2005)
3.27 (1991–2005)
4.96 (1960–2005)
3.99 (1991–2005)
Steege A. L, et al. 20146Workplace fatalityFatal occupational injuries per 100 000 workers 2005–20092.523.68
Sugarman, J. R. et al, 19936Workplace fatalityWorkplace fatalities per 100 000 workers in 19805.57.7 (US civilian labour force)
Taylor A. J. et al, 20026Electrocution fatalitiesFatalities per 100 000 worker years0.220.23
  • See online supplemental table 2 for full reference list provided in table.

  • *Data source—1=community sample, 2=multisite medical records, 3=single workplace survey, 4=multiworkplace survey, 5=workers’ compensation, 6=national representative sample, 7=state representative sample, 8=coronial records

  • NP, not provided; NZ, New Zealand.