Table 2

OLAWIS cohort demographic, work, health and injury characteristics at cohort inception, by persistent pain status

All respondentsNo painMild pain, functional impairment unlikelySevere pain, functional impairment likelyP value
N1131254479398
Row per cent, unweighted (weighted)100.022.4 (30.2)42.4 (44.8)35.2 (24.9)
Age, mean (SD)47.37 (12.81)44.45 (13.90)47.86 (12.42)48.66 (12.29)<0.001
Age, by decade, n (%)
 Less than 30 years old145 (12.8)49 (19.3)54 (11.3)42 (10.6)
 30–39 years old183 (16.2)49 (19.3)80 (16.7)54 (13.6)
 40–49 years old228 (20.2)49 (19.3)85 (17.7)94 (23.6)
 50–59 years old371 (32.8)68 (26.8)178 (37.2)125 (31.4)
 Over 60 years old204 (18.0)39 (15.4)82 (17.1)83 (20.9)
Female sex, n (%)497 (43.9)98 (38.6)220 (45.9)179 (45.0)0.329
Highest level of education, n (%)0.131
 High school diploma or less461 (40.8)91 (35.8)192 (40.1)178 (44.9)
 College degree or trade certification416 (36.8)96 (37.8)178 (37.2)142 (35.9)
 Undergraduate or graduate degree252 (22.3)67 (26.4)109 (22.8)76 (19.2)
Country of birth, outside Canada, n (%)263 (23.3)50 (19.8)103 (21.5)110 (27.6)0.033
Household income ($C), n (%)0.001
 <$40K183 (18.3)27 (12.1)72 (16.8)84 (24.0)
 $40–$69K195 (19.5)39 (17.4)84 (19.6)72 (20.6)
 $70–$99K227 (22.7)53 (23.7)89 (20.8)85 (24.3)
 $100–$129K185 (18.5)46 (20.5)81 (18.9)58 (16.6)
 ≥$130K212 (21.2)59 (26.3)102 (23.8)51 (14.6)
First WSIB claim, n (%)610 (56.0)165 (65.0)260 (56.6)197 (51.4)0.036
Industry at time of claim, n (%)0.209
 Healthcare and social assistance170 (15.0)38 (15.0)76 (15.9)56 (14.1)
 Construction, utilities, mining,
agriculture, forestry
156 (13.8)32 (12.6)70 (14.6)54 (13.6)
 Transportation and warehousing147 (13.0)32 (12.6)55 (11.5)60 (15.1)
 Manufacturing142 (12.6)22 (8.7)72 (15.0)48 (12.1)
 Other services (except public
 administration)
139 (12.3)32 (12.6)61 (12.7)46 (11.6)
 Retail, wholesale trade93 (8.2)22 (8.7)34 (7.1)37 (9.3)
 Educational services99 (8.8)29 (11.4)45 (9.4)25 (6.3)
 Accommodation/food services/ arts/
 Entertainment
87 (7.7)19 (7.5)28 (5.8)40 (10.1)
 Public administration66 (5.8)19 (7.5)26 (5.4)21 (5.3)
 Other32 (2.8)9 (3.5)12 (2.5)11 (2.8)
Nature of injury, n (%)0.513
 Sprain, strain, or dislocation551 (48.7)113 (44.5)237 (49.5)201 (50.5)
 Fracture140 (12.4)36 (14.2)56 (11.7)48 (12.1)
 Superficial or open wound125 (11.1)28 (11.0)62 (12.9)35 (8.8)
 Organ/blood vessel/muscle injury, internal injury, crushing, amputation140 (12.4)32 (12.6)57 (11.9)51 (12.8)
 Other44 (3.9)13 (5.1)19 (4.0)12 (3.0)
 Unknown131 (11.6)32 (12.6)48 (10.0)51 (12.8)
Prevalence of chronic conditions, preinjury
 Back problems, n (%)188 (16.8)28 (11.1)90 (19.0)70 (17.7)0.02
 Arthritis, n (%)190 (16.9)23 (9.1)86 (18.0)81 (20.5)0.001
 Migraine, n (%)191 (16.9)33 (13.0)87 (18.3)71 (17.8)0.159
 Mood disorder, n(%)120 (10.7)20 (7.9)41 (8.6)59 (14.9)0.003
 High blood pressure, n (%)168 (14.9)32 (12.6)66 (13.8)70 (17.8)0.133
  • OLAWIS, Ontario Life After Work Injury Study; WSIB, Workplace Safety & Insurance Board.