Table 3

HRs for death involving COVID-19 for adults aged 40–64 years, compared with non-essential workers, by sex

MenWomen
OccupationAge adjustedAdjusted for confoundersFully adjustedAge adjustedAdjusted for confoundersFully adjusted
All essential workers* 1.45 (1.34–1.56)1.31 (1.21–1.41)1.22 (1.13–1.32)1.16 (1.05–1.28)1.10 (0.99–1.21)1.06 (0.96–1.17)
Taxi and cab drivers and chauffeurs3.08 (2.56–3.70)2.01 (1.67–2.43)1.39 (1.14–1.70)3.94 (1.634–9.48)2.59 (1.075–6.26)2.45 (1.014–5.92)
Support staff2.39 (1.68–3.41)1.98 (1.39–2.83)1.74 (1.22–2.49)0.95 (0.673–1.34)2.07 (0.860–5.00)0.78 (0.550–1.10)
Bus and coach drivers2.33 (1.81–3.00)1.53 (1.19–1.98)1.11 (0.85–1.45)2.95 (1.226–7.12)1.05 (0.860–1.28)1.73 (0.716–4.18)
Sanitary workers1.84 (1.46–2.32)1.12 (0.89–1.42)1.18 (0.93–1.50)1.78 (1.473–2.16)1.36 (1.164–1.59)1.09 (0.892–1.33)
Social care1.83 (1.51–2.20)1.54 (1.27–1.85)1.27 (1.04–1.53)1.62 (1.390–1.89)1.16 (0.480–2.79)1.18 (1.010–1.39)
Van drivers1.81 (1.48–2.22)1.28 (1.05–1.57)1.26 (1.03–1.55)1.59 (0.661–3.84)1.09 (0.709–1.66)1.27 (0.526–3.06)
Health associate professionals1.65 (1.26–2.16)2.11 (1.60–2.78)1.86 (1.41–2.46)0.92 (0.746–1.15)1.07 (0.914–1.26)1.22 (0.969–1.54)
Food retail and distribution1.41 (1.22–1.63)1.26 (1.09–1.46)1.14 (0.98–1.32)1.39 (1.187–1.63)0.89 (0.633–1.26)1.02 (0.867–1.20)
Other transport workers1.21 (1.02–1.43)1.07 (0.91–1.27)1.10 (0.93–1.30)0.36 (0.115–1.11)1.33 (1.052–1.67)0.31 (0.098–0.95)
Health professionals1.21 (0.82–1.78)1.88 (1.27–2.79)1.45 (0.97–2.15)0.25 (0.079–0.76)0.79 (0.623–1.00)0.45 (0.145–1.42)
Food production1.12 (0.86–1.45)1.17 (0.90–1.52)1.15 (0.89–1.50)1.48 (0.968–2.26)0.50 (0.161–1.56)1.15 (0.750–1.77)
Education0.63 (0.47–0.84)0.86 (0.64–1.16)0.91 (0.68–1.23)0.56 (0.446–0.70)0.31 (0.099–0.96)0.83 (0.653–1.05)
Police and protective services0.45 (0.31–0.67)0.59 (0.40–0.88)0.60 (0.40–0.88)0.38 (0.123–1.19)0.44 (0.141–1.37)0.50 (0.160–1.54)
  • Note: fully adjusted Cox regression models include geographical factors (region, population density and urban/rural classification), ethnicity, socioeconomic characteristics (Index of Multiple Deprivation decile group, household deprivation, educational attainment, social grade, household tenancy, type of accommodation, household size, multigenerational household and household with children), health (body mass index, chronic kidney disease, learning disability, cancer or immunosuppression and other conditions). See online supplemental table S3 for more details.

  • *Essential workers include all types of essential workers listed in the table. The HR for essential workers is obtained using a separate model, where the exposure is a binary variable.