Table 2

Association between baseline occupational noise exposure and stroke incidence

N casesModel 1
HR (95% CI)
Model 2†
HR (95% CI)
Model 3‡
HR (95% CI)
Occupational noise, all strokes
 <70 dB(A)4526ReferenceReferenceReference
 70–74 dB(A)14551.05 (0.99 to 1.11)1.03 (0.97 to 1.09)1.01 (0.95 to 1.07)
 75–79 dB(A)8181.08 (1.00 to 1.16)1.03 (0.96 to 1.12)1.02 (0.94 to 1.10)
 80–84 dB(A)5171.10 (1.00 to 1.21)1.04 (0.94 to 1.14)1.00 (0.91 to 1.10)
 ≥85 dB(A)4611.12 (1.01 to 1.23)1.05 (0.95 to 1.16)1.01 (0.91 to 1.12)
Occupational noise, ischaemic strokes
 <70 dB(A)2554ReferenceReferenceReference
 70–74 dB(A)7841.06 (0.98 to 1.15)1.05 (0.96 to 1.14)1.03 (0.95 to 1.12)
 75–79 dB(A)4791.13 (1.02 to 1.25)1.10 (0.99 to 1.22)1.08 (0.98 to 1.20)
 80–84 dB(A)3271.18 (1.05 to 1.33)1.14 (1.01 to 1.29)1.09 (0.97 to 1.24)
 ≥85 dB(A)2571.14 (1.00 to 1.30)1.10 (0.96 to 1.26)1.06 (0.92 to 1.21)
Occupational noise, haemorrhagic strokes
 <70 dB(A)542ReferenceReferenceReference
 70–74 dB(A)1841.12 (0.95 to 1.33)1.11 (0.94 to 1.32)1.10 (0.93 to 1.31)
 75–79 dB(A)941.04 (0.84 to 1.30)1.02 (0.81 to 1.28)1.01 (0.80 to 1.27)
 80–84 dB(A)460.82 (0.60 to 1.12)0.79 (0.57 to 1.08)0.76 (0.56 to 1.05)
 ≥85 dB(A)470.96 (0.71 to 1.30)0.93 (0.68 to 1.28)0.90 (0.66 to 1.24)
Occupational noise, unspecified strokes
 <70 dB(A)1429ReferenceReferenceReference
 70–74 dB(A)4911.01 (0.91 to 1.12)0.97 (0.87 to 1.07)0.94 (0.84 to 1.04)
 75–79 dB(A)2440.99 (0.87 to 1.14)0.92 (0.80 to 1.06)0.90 (0.78 to 1.03)
 80–84 dB(A)1421.05 (0.88 to 1.25)0.95 (0.79 to 1.13)0.90 (0.75 to 1.08)
 ≥85 dB(A)1571.13 (0.95 to 1.33)1.01 (0.85 to 1.20)0.95 (0.80 to 1.13)
  • *Adjusted for age (underlying time scale), sex and calendar year at baseline (5-year periods).

  • †Model 1 plus adjustment for education level (low, medium, high), marital status (married/cohabiting, single), area-income (quartiles).

  • ‡Model 2 plus adjustment for smoking status (never, former, current), and physical activity (low, medium, high).