Table 2

Psychosocial work characteristics during COVID-19 pandemic versus before

Working from homeNew tasksTeam reorganisation
ExposedNon-exposedGroup×timeExposedNon-exposedGroup×timeExposedNon-exposedGroup×time
SMD*95% CISMD*
95% CISMD*95% CISMD*95% CISMD*95% CISMD*95% CI
Worktime control 2020 versus 2016–2018
Model 10.0760.065 to 0.0870.0140.004 to 0.024<0.001−0.011−0.040 to 0.0180.0440.036 to 0.051<0.0010.003−0.032 to 0.0370.0420.035 to 0.0420.041
Model 20.0780.066 to 0.0900.0260.015 to 0.037<0.001−0.007−0.039 to 0.0240.0510.042 to 0.060<0.0010.011−0.026 to 0.0470.0490.040 to 0.0570.057
Model 30.0780.066 to 0.0900.0250.014 to 0.036<0.001−0.008−0.039 to 0.0240.0510.042 to 0.059<0.0010.010−0.026 to 0.0470.0480.040 to 0.0570.059
Relational justice 2020 versus 2016–2018
Model 10.0880.071 to 0.1050.0660.052 to 0.0810.0690.010−0.033 to 0.0530.0800.06 to 0.0910.0080.0670.019 to 0.1150.0760.064 to 0.0870.54
Model 20.0940.076 to 0.1110.0670.052 to 0.0830.0540.013−0.033 to 0.0590.0840.071 to 0.0960.0130.0730.022 to 0.1240.0790.067 to 0.0910.65
Model 30.0930.076 to 0.1100.0680.052 to 0.0840.0690.013−0.033 to 0.0590.0840.071 to 0.0960.0130.0720.022 to 0.1120.0790.067 to 0.0910.67
Procedural justice 2020 versus 2016–2018
Model 10.1130.097 to 0.1290.0720.058 to 0.086<0.0010.025−0.016 to 0.0670.0940.083 to 0.105<0.0010.0690.021 to 0.1170.0900.080 to 0.1010.57
Model 20.1010.084 to 0.1180.0530.038 to 0.068<0.0010.016−0.028 to 0.0600.0790.067 to 0.0900.0030.045−0.006 to 0.0970.0750.064 to 0.0870.48
Model 30.1010.084 to 0.1180.0530.038 to 0.068<0.0010.016−0.028 to 0.0600.0790.067 to 0.0910.0040.046−0.005 to 0.0970.0760.064 to 0.0870.50
Workplace social capital 2020 versus 2016–2018
Model 10.0870.072 to 0.1030.0320.019 to 0.046<0.0010.017−0.023 to 0.0580.0580.048 to 0.0680.160.016−0.032 to 0.0640.0570.048 to 0.0680.17
Model 20.0940.078 to 0.1100.0330.019 to 0.048<0.0010.025−0.020 to 0.0680.0630.051 to 0.0740.250.021−0.030 to 0.0720.0620.051 to 0.0740.21
Model 30.0940.077 to 0.1100.0340.019 to 0.048<0.0010.025−0.019 to 0.0690.0630.051 to 0.0750.260.020−0.031 to 0.0710.0630.051 to 0.0740.20
RR† 95% CI RR† 95% CI Group×time RR† 95% CI RR† 95% CI Group×time RR† 95% CI RR† 95% CI Group×time
Job strain 2020 versus 2016–2018
Model 11.061.01 to 1.101.021.00 to 1.050.271.030.96 to 1.111.031.01 to 1.060.921.050.95 to 1.161.031.01 to 1.050.74
Model 21.051.01 to 1.101.051.01 to 1.070.381.040.96 to 1.131.051.02 to 1.070.891.060.96 to 1.181.051.02 to 1.070.65
Model 31.061.01 to 1.111.041.01 to 1.070.371.040.96 to 1.131.051.02 to 1.070.891.070.96 to 1.181.051.02 to 1.070.63
  • Years 2016 and 2018 are contrasted to 2020.

  • Model 1 is unadjusted; Model 2 is adjusted for sex, age and SES; and Model 3 is adjusted as Model 2+lifestyle risk factors.

  • *SMD>0 indicates an increase between 2020 and 2016–2016; SMD<0 indicates a decrease between 2020 and 2016–2018.

  • †RR>1 indicates increased risk of job strain between 2020 and 2016–2018.

  • RR, risk ratio; SMD, standardised mean difference.