Table 1

Association of demographic and clinical characteristics of the study sample with COVID-19 case status

Non-COVID-19 caseCOVID-19 caseRR* (95% CI)
N58 4404408
Person-years69 491.33909.1
Age, years54.6 (19.4)53.2 (20.0)0.92 (0.91 to 0.94)†
Men, n (%)27 355 (46.8%)2011 (45.6%)0.96 (0.91 to 1.02)
Living in a residential care home, n (%)247 (0.4%)160 (3.6%)10.6 (9.0 to 12.4)
Population density, persons/km2, n (%)
<735 persons/km2 6494 (11.1%)472 (10.7%)Reference
736–1739 persons/km2 4650 (8.0%)333 (7.8%)0.99 (0.86 to 1.14)
1740–2939 persons/km2 11 925 (20.4%)940 (21.3%)1.06 (0.95 to 1.19)
>2940 persons/km2 35 371 (60.5%)2663 (60.4%)1.00 (0.91 to 1.11)
History of drug treatment, n (%)‡
Diabetes3238 (5.6%)257 (5.8%)1.17 (1.03 to 1.34)
Antihypertensive17 358 (29.7%)1231 (27.9%)1.12 (1.03 to 1.21)
Lipid-lowering8432 (14.4%)568 (12.9%)0.94 (0.84 to 1.04)
Treatment for obstructive airway diseases4816 (8.2%)402 (9.1%)1.17 (1.05 to 1.30)
Positive history, n (%)§
Coronary heart disease1105 (1.9%)88 (2.0%)1.07 (0.86 to 1.33)
Stroke1017 (1.7%)118 (2.7%)1.29 (1.07 to 1.56)
Cancer1771 (3.0%)130 (3.0%)1.07 (0.90 to 1.27)
COPD591 (1.0%)57 (1.3%)1.05 (0.81 to 1.36)
  • *Rate ratio (RR) from Poisson regression model.

  • †Rate ratio (RR) for 10-year increase in age.

  • ‡At least one prescription during the year 2019. ATC classes: diabetes (A10); antihypertensive (C02, C03, C07, C08, C09); lipid-lowering (C10); treatment for obstructive airway diseases (R03).

  • §At least one hospital discharge record between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2019. ICD-9 codes: coronary heart disease (410–414); stroke (430–438); cancer (140–208); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (490–496).