Table 3

Associations of daily steps and cardiovascular load (n=19)

WorkdaysNon-workdaysP value
Step count/day*12 772 (945)7923 (1063)<0.001
β (SE)P value†β (SE)P value†Interaction
P value
Effect Size
Heart rate (beats/min)
 24-hour0.714 (0.143)<0.0010.688 (0.248)0.0060.9220.00
 Waking0.803 (0.144)<0.0010.681 (0.249)0.0060.6520.00
 Nocturnal0.390 (0.169)0.0210.224 (0.314)0.4760.6320.00
Systolic BP (mm Hg)
 24-hour−0.026 (0.270)0.925−0.010 (0.436)0.9820.9760.00
 Waking0.108 (0.263)0.6830.107 (0.423)0.8000.9990.00
 Nocturnal−0.317 (0.436)0.467−0.252 (0.736)0.7320.9400.00
Diastolic BP (mm Hg)
 24-hour0.127 (0.158)0.4220.120 (0.249)0.6310.9810.00
 Waking0.308 (0.175)0.0780.388 (0.274)0.1570.8040.00
 Nocturnal−0.155 (0.224)0.489−0.152 (0.362)0.6760.9940.00
  • All coefficients represent a unit change in outcome per 1000 step change.

  • All models were adjusted for age, BMI, smoking status, fitness, and the resting value of the outcome of interest (except for HRV).

  • *Presented as least squared means (SE).

  • †P values indicate the probability of the associated beta-coefficient being equal to 0.

  • ‡The magnitude of effect (f2) is calculated for the interaction term and can be interpreted as small: f2 ≥0.02, medium: f2 ≥0.15, and large: f2 ≥0.35.

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; HRV, heart rate variability; β (SE), beta coefficient (SE).