Table 4

Adjusted relative rates (RR) and 2-year surveillance bias-adjusted RR of cancers in WTC-exposed male FDNY firefighters versus male CFHS firefighters, 11 September 2001–31 December 2016

SiteAdj. RR (95% CI)*Surveillance bias Adj. RR (95% CI)*†
All-cancer sites‡1.13 (1.02 to 1.25)1.07 (0.96 to 1.18)
Prostate1.39 (1.19 to 1.63)1.28 (1.09 to 1.51)
Lung0.87 (0.57 to 1.33)0.77 (0.50 to 1.19)
Kidney0.82 (0.52 to 1.30)0.75 (0.47 to 1.20)
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma1.26 (0.80 to 2.00)1.21 (0.75 to 1.94)
Melanoma (skin)§1.12 (0.80 to 1.57)N/A
Thyroid2.53 (1.37 to 4.70)2.11 (1.14 to 3.90)
  • *Regression models adjusted for age on 11 September 2001 and race/ethnicity.

  • †Diagnosis dates of some FDNY cancer cases (N=204) delayed by 2 years to account for potential surveillance bias.

  • ‡All malignant cancers (multiple primaries), and in situ bladder cancers.

  • §Analysis restricted to white males (N=16 238) due to low case counts in other race/ethnic groups.

  • CFHS, Career Firefighter Health Study; FDNY, Fire Department of the City of New York; NA, not available; WTC, World Trade Center.