Table 3

Employee well-being during COVID-19 pandemic versus before

Working from homeNew tasksTeam reorganisation
ExposedNon-exposedGroup×timeExposedNon-exposedGroup×timeExposedNon-exposedGroup×time
RR*95% CIRR*95% CIRR*95% CIRR*95% CIRR*95% CIRR*95% CI
Psychological distress 2020 versus 2016–2018
Model 11.030.99 to 1.061.111.08 to 1.15<0.0011.221.14 to 1.321.071.04 to 1.090.00241.111.01 to 1.221.071.05 to 1.100.20
Model 21.061.02 to 1.091.161.13 to 1.20<0.0011.291.19 to 1.391.101.07 to 1.13<0.0011.141.03 to 1.261.111.09 to 1.140.20
Model 31.061.02 to 1.091.161.13 to 1.20<0.0011.281.19 to 1.391.101.07 to 1.12<0.0011.141.03 to 1.251.111.09 to 1.140.20
SMD†95%CISMD†95% CIGroup×timeSMD†95% CISMD†95% CIGroup×timeSMD†95% CISMD†95% CIGroup×time
Self-rated health 2020 versus 2016–2018
Model 1−0.095−0.110 to –0.080−0.137−0.150 to –0.125<0.001−0.158−0.197 to –0.119−0.117−0.127 to to 0.1070.13−0.126−0.170 to –0.081−0.119−0.129 to –0.1090.83
Model 2−0.038−0.054 to –0.022−0.084−0.098 to –0.070<0.001−0.107−0.149 to –0.066−0.061−0.072 to to 0.0500.080−0.066−0.114 to –0.019−0.064−0.075 to –0.0530.85
Model 3−0.038−0.054 to –0.022−0.081−0.095 to –0.067<0.001−0.108−0.149 to –0.066−0.059−0.048 to to 0.0590.062−0.068−0.115 to –0.020−0.062−0.073 to –0.0510.76
Work ability 2020 versus 2016–2018
Model 1−0.139−0.156 to –0.123−0.192−0.207 to –0.178<0.001−0.197−0.240 to –0.154−0.168−0.179 to to 0.1570.35−0.200−0.250 to –0.150−0.169−0.180 to –0.1570.021
Model 2−0.091−0.108 to –0.074−0.154−0.170 to –0.138<0.001−0.162−0.208 to –0.156−0.124−0.136 to to 0.1120.27−0.150−0.203 to –0.097−0.125−0.137 to –0.1130.018
Model 3−0.091−0.108 to −0.074−0.151−0.167 to –0.136<0.001−0.162−0.207 to –0.115−0.123−0.135 to to 0.1100.26−0.151−0.203 to –0.098−0.124−0.136 to –0.1120.013
  • Years 2016 and 2018 are contrasted to 2020.

  • Model 1 is unadjusted; Model 2 is adjusted for sex, age and SES; and Model 3 is adjusted as Model 2+lifestyle risk factors

  • *RR>1 indicates increased risk of psychological distress between 2020 and 2016–2018.

  • †SMD>0 indicates an increase between 2020 and 2016–2016; SMD<0 indicates a decrease between 2020 and 2016–2018.

  • RR, risk ratio; SMD, standardised mean difference.