Table 2

Significant risk factors by described pathogens (the full list of references per pathogen is available in the online supplemental appendix review 2)

PathogenDisease factorWorkplace factorWorker factor
Avian influenza virusModerate poultry exposure (301–900 poultry-years)21
Professional classification as a poultry seller22 ≥10 years of occupational exposure23
Another stall nearby, number of cages (more than five)24 Workplaces near locations where H5N2 outbreaks in poultry were reported25
Wholesale/retail live poultry markets26
Female gender22 23
Male gender27 28
Coxiella burnetiiContact with small ruminants (sheep and goats)29 Cattle contact at own or other farm30 Keeping sheep or goats, exposure to arthropod bites31 ≥3 daily goat-related tasks (milking, feeding, supply and removal, general animal healthcare and birth assistance), other goat breeds next to white dairy goat32 Milking cattle, general healthcare of cattle, birth assistance, contact with raw milk, contact with cattle manure, contact with dead-born animals33Presence of cat(s) in goat stable, distance residence to nearest stable ≤10 m, distance to nearest positive farm 0–<4 km28 Passed through the stores34Full working week, worked in cattle sector in the past30 Age >50 years), rural area of residence, having little or no formal education31 Lived as child on a ruminant farm, no farm boots for staff32 Male gender34 No respiratory protection mask35 Living in rural areas36
Hepatitis E virusAbattoir work, sewage work37 Occupational contact with animals (forestry/pig farm workers)38 Slaughterers39 Exposure to soil, contact with swine40 Having professions with exposure to pigs for more than 16.5 years41Unorganised swine farming37 Woodcutting42 Raw seafood processing43 Feeding of pigs44 Previous mission abroad (military forces)45Consumption of pork-liver sausages37 Residence area40 Age≥50 years, age group 25–34 years, ascending age, ages 40–49, 50–59, ≥60 and over 40 years38 44 46–48 ≥7 working years43 Living in an area with frequent flooding, consuming intern pig organs more than twice per week49 Ever been in Africa50
Streptococcus pneumoniaeOccupational exposure to welding fumes, silica dust5