Table 1

Summary of characteristics of studies that included workplace interventions aiming to improve employee health and well-being in male-dominated industries

Author (year)DesignIndustryParticipants, context/setting/% of menInterventionOutcomesFollow-up time pointsRisk of biasIntervention evaluation
Anderson and Dusenbury (1999)32Quasi-experimental; participants assigned to intervention 1 (n=61), intervention 2 (n=35) and control (n=118).Construction.234 blue-collar employees from worksites/USA/52.5%.Intervention 1: group education classes for risk factors, nutrition.
Intervention 2: online individual programme for risk factors, nutrition.
Cholesterol; blood pressure; height; weight; behavioural risk factor survey; 10-item questionnaire.Baseline, 6 and 12 months.Unclear.Local government and research study.
Blake et al (2019)31Cluster RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=196) and control (n=86).Information technology.282 office workers/China/50.3%.10 min Qigong exercise session delivered twice per day at set times for 12 weeks via video.Physical activity (IPAQ); work performance (WHO HPQ); weekday sitting hours.Baseline and 12 weeks.Low.Research study.
Braeckman et al (1999)11RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=272) and control (n=366).Construction.638 workers from four local worksites/Belgium/100%.Adopt a low-fat diet. Received personal counselling, feedback and 2-hour group session.BMI; high-density cholesterol; non-fasting total serum cholesterol; 24-hour food record.Baseline and 3 months.Unclear.Research study.
Evans et al (1999)40Controlled trial; participants assigned to the intervention (n=10) and control (n=31).Transport.41 full-time bus operators/Sweden/67.5%.Changes on a major bus route: separate bus lanes, priority traffic signal system.Blood pressure; heart rate; Swedish measure of perceived stress; on-the-job hassles.Baseline and 18 months.High.Local government and research study.
Faude et al (2015)33Longitudinal controlled trial; participants assigned to the intervention (n=45) and control (n=25).Construction.70 employees from one construction company/Switzerland/ND.Neuromuscular training for 15 min daily for 13 weeks.COP path length; beam balancing (3 cm); beam balancing; jump height; Freiburg Physical Activity Questionnaire.Baseline, 8 and 13 weeks.Unclear.Research study.
Gram et al (2012)12RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=35) and control (n=32).Construction.67 employees from three construction companies/Denmark/100%.Exercise programme of 3×20 min sessions per week. Participants kept a training log.Pain intensity; work ability; productivity; perceived physical exertion; sick leave.Baseline and 6 months.Low.Research study.
Gram et al (2012)13RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=35) and control (n=32).Construction.67 employees from three construction companies/Denmark/100%.Exercise programme of 3×20 min sessions per week. Participants kept a training log.Pain intensity; work ability; productivity; perceived physical exertion; sick leave.Baseline and 6 months.Unclear.Research study.
Groeneveld et al (2010)15RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=408) and control (n=408).Construction.816 construction workers/the Netherlands/100%.3×60 min and 4×30 min sessions. Chose diet, physical activity or smoking cessation.Body weight; BMI; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; HDL cholesterol; total cholesterol; HbA1c.Baseline 6 and 12 months.Low.Research study.
Groeneveld et al (2011)14RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=408) and control (408).Construction.816 construction workers/the Netherlands/100%.3×60 min and 4×30 min sessions. Chose diet, physical activity or smoking cessation.Body weight; BMI; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; HDL cholesterol; total cholesterol; HbA1c.Baseline, 6 and 12 months.Low.Research study.
Gupta et al (2018)34Cluster RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=193) and control (n=122).Manufacturing.415 employees from three manufacturing plants/Denmark/70.4%.Participated in visual mapping talk with line management. Leaders, union and H&S representatives also participated.Worker’s recovery; work ability; mental health; well-being; physical work demands; resources; productivity.Baseline, 10 and 12 months.Low.Research study.
Hammer et al (2015)41RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=167) and control (n=125).Construction.264 employees from an urban municipal department/USA/90%.Supervisors participated in FSSB and SBS computer-based training. All employees participated in workshop planning.Blood pressure; SF-12; safety behaviours.Baseline and 12 months.Unclear.Research study.
Holmström and Ahlborg (2005)16Cluster RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=30) and control (n=17).Construction.57 employees from a construction company/Sweden/ND.10 min exercises before work for 3 months.Neck mobility; spine mobility; shoulder joint mobility.Baseline and 3 months.Unclear.Research study.
Kang et al (2018)35RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=12) and control (n=12).Manufacturing.24 employees from an automobile assembly plant/South Korea/ND.Performed exercises for 30 min each day for 6 weeks.Back muscle strength; stork balance stand test; VAS; Oswestry Disability Index; Beck Depression Inventory.Baseline and 6 weeks.Unclear.Research study.
Kawakami et al (1999)26RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=81) and control (n=77).Manufacturing.158 employees from a manufacturing plant/Japan/81%.Participants received personalised letters with their stress levels and recommendations to help improve.GHQ; blood pressure; serum cholesterol; triglycerides; sick leave.Baseline and 12 months.Unclear.Research study.
Kobayashi et al (2008)27Controlled trial; participants assigned to the intervention (n=348) and control (n=918).Manufacturing.1266 employees from a manufacturing plant/Japan/92.9%.Participated in a mental health workshop, identify three actions to improve the workplace.Absenteeism; BJSQ; job stress assessment diagram.Baseline and 12 months.Low.Company and research study.
Limaye et al (2017)30RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=133) and control (n=132).Information technology.266 employees from two information technology industries/India/74.8%.Attended group session and OW/OB participants aimed to lose 5% weight via four goals.BMI; waist circumference; blood pressure; plasma glucose; triglyceride; total cholesterol; HDL cholesterol; lifestyle questionnaire.Baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months.Low.Research study.
Limm et al (2011)42RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=75) and control (n=79).Manufacturing.174 employees from a manufacturing plant/Germany/99%.Participated in 24×45 min group sessions on individual work stress situations.Stress reactivity scale; effort-reward imbalance model; cortisol; α-amylase; HADS.Baseline and 12 months.Low.Research study.
Maes et al (1998)28Quasi-experimental; participants assigned to the intervention (n=234) and control (n=130).Manufacturing.264 employees from Brabantia assembly sites/the Netherlands/ND.Year 1: lifestyle changes with three weekly sessions.
Years 2 and 3: quality of work changes with leadership session.
BMI; heart rate; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; total cholesterol; absenteeism; wellness at work; Symptom Checklist-90; Work Stress Questionnaire.Baseline, years 1, 2 and 3.Unclear.Company and evaluated as a research study.
Matsugaki et al (2019)39RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=30) and control (n=30).Manufacturing.60 employees from manufacturing companies/Japan.Monthly, face-to-face personalised physical activity and nutrition education programme for 6 months.30 s chair stand; grip strength; balance; body composition.Baseline and 6 months.Low.Research study.
McCraty et al (2003)43RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=18) and control (n=14).Information technology.38 employees from an information technology company/America/71.5%.Participated in a 16-hour programme addressing positive emotion refocusing and emotional restricting techniques.Blood pressure, emotional health; workplace-related measures.Baseline and 3 months.Unclear.Company and evaluated as a research study.
Milner et al (2018)18RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=343) and control (n=302).Construction.682 employees from construction companies/Australia/100%.Access to the Contact+Connect programme with 1 weekly message for 6 weeks.Self-Stigma of Depression Scale; suicidal ideation; suicide communication; SBQ-R.Baseline and 6 weeks.Low.Company and evaluated as a research study.
Milner et al (2020)17RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=227) and control (n=215).Construction.442 employees from construction companies/Australia/100%.Access to the Contact+Connect programme with 1 weekly message for 6 weeks.Self-Stigma of Depression Scale; suicidal ideation; suicide communication; SBQ-R.Baseline and 6 weeks.Low.Company and evaluated as a research study.
Molek-Winiarska and Żołnierczyk-Zreda (2018)19RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=32) and control (n=34).Mining.66 employees from a mining company/Poland.Received the MBSR intervention, sessions were held in 4×8-hour meetings and one mindfulness days.JCQ; GHQ-28.Baseline and 3 months.Unclear.Research study.
Muñoz-Poblete et al (2019)38RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=53) and control (n=56).Manufacturing.109 employees from manufacturing companies/Chile/80.8%.Received a resistance-based exercise programme, 3 times a week for 15 min. Control group received stretching exercises.VAS; DASH questionnaire; psychosocial risk measurement; physical risk measurement.Baseline and 16 weeks.Unclear.Research study.
Muyor et al (2012)20RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=27) and control (n=31).Manufacturing.58 employees from a manufacturing company/Spain/0%.Hamstring stretches/exercises three times a week for 12 weeks.Straight leg raise (right and left leg); toe-touch test.Baseline and 12 weeks.Unclear.Research study.
Nakao et al (2007)21Cohort; participants assigned to the intervention (n=283) and control (n=22).Information technology.305 employees from an information technology company/Japan/100%.Offered counselling via email/phone and referred to psychiatric clinic. Attended five seminars.HAM-D and JCQ.Baseline and 2 years.Unclear.Company and research study.
Nishinoue et al (2012)44RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=62) and control (n=62).Information technology.127 employees from an information technology company/Japan/85.75%.Sleep hygiene education session followed by individual session discussing their chosen behaviour modification.PSQI.Baseline and 3 months.Unclear.Research study.
Oude Hengel et al (2012)22RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=171) and control (n=122).Construction.293 employees from six construction companies/the Netherlands/99%.Individual training sessions with three physical goals. Two group mental health sessions.JCQ; Utrecht Work Engagement Scale; physical workload; VBBA.Baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months.Low.Research study.
Oude Hengel et al (2013)23RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=171) and control (n=122).Construction.293 employees from six construction companies/the Netherlands/99%.Individual training sessions with three physical goals. Two group mental health sessions.Absenteeism; Work Ability Index; SF-12; Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire.Baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months.Low.Research study.
Pidd et al (2018)36Cluster non-RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=169) and control (n=148).Manufacturing.317 employees from three manufacturing companies/Australia/87.4%.Formal alcohol workplace policy, employee programme, manager training session and employee referral pathway.3-item AUDIT-C; European alcohol workplace and alcohol baseline questionnaire; alcohol-related harm in the workplace; policy awareness.Baseline and 12 months.Unclear.Company and research study.
Rasotto et al (2015)25Cluster RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=30) and control (n=30).Manufacturing.60 employees from a manufacturing company/Italy/0%.Exercise programme for 30 min twice a week for 6 months.VAS (neck, elbow, shoulder, wrist); SH (el, ab); FL head; EX head; LI head; RO head; DASH questionnaire; NPDS-1.Baseline and 6 months.Low.Research study.
Umanodan et al (2009)45Controlled trial; participants assigned to the intervention (n=96) and control (n=53).Manufacturing.149 employees from a steel company/Japan/90%.6-monthly sessions lasting 30 min following a multicomponent SMT programme.BJSQ; MBI-GS; WHO HPQ.Baseline and 6 months.High.Research study.
Umanodan et al (2014)46Cluster RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=142) and control (n=121).Manufacturing.263 employees from a manufacturing company/Japan/92.6%.Computer-based SMT intervention, each split into two sessions. Suggested pace of 1 per week.BJSQ; UWES-J; WHO HPQ; BSCP.Baseline, 9 and 19 weeks.Low.Research study.
Viester et al (2018)24RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=162) and control (n=152).Construction.314 employees from construction companies/the Netherlands/100%.Individual coaching sessions to change lifestyle behaviour over 6 months.BMI; waist circumference; blood pressure; total cholesterol; SQUASH questionnaire.Baseline, 6 and 12 months.Research study.
Zebis et al (2011)37RCT; participants assigned to the intervention (n=282) and control (n=255).Manufacturing.537 employees from two manufacturing companies/Denmark/15.5%.Exercise programme for 1 hour per week over 20 weeks.Modified Nordic Questionnaire; training frequency.Baseline and 6 weeks.Low.Research study.
  • AUDIT-C, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption; BSCP, Brief Scales for Coping Profile; FSSB, Family-Supportive Supervisor Behaviours; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HAM-D, Hamilton Depressing Rating Scale; HbA1c, Haemoglobin A1c; H&S, Health and Safety; MBI-GS, Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey; MBSR, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction; PSQI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; SBS, Supervisor Based Safety; SH (el, ab), Shoulder (elevation, abduction); SMT, Stress Management Training; UWES-J, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale - Japanese.