Table 3

Included studies examining gender-based and non-specific violence as predictors of mental health outcomes, sickness absence and physical health outcomes in employees in health care, social care or education

AuthorYearCountryIndustry/occupationN (% Women)ExposureOutcomeCovariatesFollow-up timeStatistical methodRisk estimateQuality
Gender-based violence
Sickness absence
1Clausen2012DenmarkEmployees in elder-care9520 (100)Unwanted sexual attentionRegisterbased long-term sickness absence (8 or more consecutive weeks)Age, job function, tenure, BMI, smoking status, psychosocial working conditionsHR 1.46 (95% CI 0.75 to 2.82)M (14)
Non-specific violence
Mental health outcomes
1De Loof2019The NetherlandsMental health nurses110 (59)Patient aggression, (verbal, physical, sexual), severity score calculated as the product of frequency and intensityBurnout, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Sum score range from 3 ‘very low’ to 15 ‘very high’Job stress, emotional intelligence, neuroticism, altruism2 years
(4 waves of data collection)
Longitudinal multilevel model in which repeated measures were nested within individualsMultilevel regression parameter 0.01, SE 0.00, p<0.05M (14)
Physical health outcomes
1Milner2017AustraliaMedical doctors389 (39)Workplace aggression from coworkers, patients, relatives, dichotomised (not described how)Self-rated health, 5 categories (excellent, very good, good, fair, poor), dichotomised as good (excellent, very good) vs poor (the remaining categories)Job demands, social support, job insecurity, job control, rewards at work, work–life imbalance, family restrictions, working hours, age, on call working hours, medical specialisation, partner/spouse, presence of children7 years (seven waves)Fixed effects regressionn.s.M (15)
  • Effect estimate from the most well-adjusted model; Quality M=medium

  • BMI, body mass index; n.s., statistically non-significant.