Table 1

Characteristics of healthcare workers who performed screening according to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR results

Clinical characteristicsSARS-CoV-2-negative n=204 (65%)SARS-CoV-2-positive n=110 (35%)P value
Men, n (%)37 (18%)22 (17%)0.7
Women, n (%)167 (82%)88 (80%)
Age, median IQR40 (30–49)38 (30–49)0.9
Age ≥65 years10
Age, mean±SD40.3±0.840.2±1.10.9
BMI ≥30 kg/m271 (35)35 (32)0.6
BMI, median (IQR)24 (21–27)25 (22–28)0.3
Smoking status, n (%)*119 (61)80 (77)<0.0001
 Never smokers
 Former smokers24 (12)16 (15)
Current smokers53 (27)8 (8)
Healthcare workers with identified risk factors†, n (%)4 (2)4 (4)0.2
Healthcare workers hospitalised, n (%)09
Occupational profile‡ §, n (%)0.03
 Directly patient facing127 (68)87 (82)
 Non-patient facing but at higher risk33 (18)12 (11)
 Non-clinical activity27 (14)7 (7)
Time since onset and nasopharyngeal swab, median (IQR)4 (3–7)4 (2–7)0.4
Corticosteroid therapy at screening4 (2)5 (5)0.2
Clinical symptoms at illness onset, n (%)
Fever54 (27)49 (48)<0.0001
Cough110 (55)64 (62)0.3
Dyspnoea55 (28)17 (17)0.03
Tiredness121 (68)56 (55)0.03
Sore throat91 (46)36 (35)0.07
Rhinorrhoea/nasal congestion105 (53)47 (46)0.2
Headache136 (68)60 (58)0.08
Muscle pain97 (49)53 (51)0.7
Chest pain/pressure38 (19)8 (8)0.01
Nausea, vomiting47 (24)10 (9.7)0.003
Diarrhoea50 (25)19 (18)0.19
Anosmia18 (10)29 (28)<0.0001
Course of clinical symptomsAt screening only, n (%) n=204At screening, n (%)/day 7 (%) n=110
Heart rate, mean±SD88±1.187±1.70.8
Oxygen saturation <96%, n (%)92 (45)41 (37)0.2
Fever, n (%)15 (7)11 (10) / (8)0.4
Cough, n (%)105 (56)68 (64) / (67)0.2
Dyspnoea, n (%)51 (27)26 (24) / (23)0.5
Tiredness, n (%)109 (62)63 (59) / (71)0.7
Sore throat, n (%)71 (38)37 (35) / (23)0.5
Rhinorrhoea/nasal congestion, n (%)92 (49)48 (45) / (46)0.4
Headache, n (%)98 (53)53 (50) / (43)0.6
Muscle pain, n (%)73 (39)45 (42) / (40)0.6
Chest pain and/or pressure, n (%)32 (17)8 (7.5) / (14)0.02
Nausea and/or vomiting, n (%)33 (18)16 (15) / (15)0.5
Diarrhoea, n (%)34 (18)16 (15) / (22)0.5
Anosmia, n (%)26 (14)48 (45) / (70)<0.0001
  • *Smoking status missing data for 8 SARS-CoV-2-negative and 6 SARS-CoV-2-positive workers, respectively.

  • †Age >65 years, chronic kidney disease on dialysis, NYHA class III or IV heart failure, cirrhosis, complicated insulin-dependent diabetes, chronic respiratory disease at risk of decompensation, asthma, immunosuppression (immunosuppressive treatment, cancer, haematological malignancy, transplant, <200 CD4).

  • ‡Occupational profile was classified into three groups: (1) Directly patient facing (eg, nurses, doctors, allied health professionals, porters, etc), (2) Non-patient facing but potentially at higher risk of nosocomial exposure (eg, domestic and laboratory staff), and (3) Non-clinical (eg, clerical, administrative, information technology, secretarial, etc)

  • §Missing data for 17 SARS-CoV-2-negative and 4 SARS-CoV-2-positive workers, respectively.

  • BMI, body mass index.