Table 3

Risk ratios for severe COVID-19 by occupational groups (n=120 075)

Severe COVID-19Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 5Model 6
RR
(95% CI)
RR
(95% CI)
RR
(95% CI)
RR
(95% CI)
RR
(95% CI)
RR
(95% CI)
Broad occupational groups of essential workers
Non-essential workers (reference)111111
Healthcare workers7.43***
(5.52 to 10.00)
8.45***
(6.22 to 11.47)
7.57***
(5.50 to 10.41)
8.44***
(6.21 to 11.46)
8.53***
(6.29 to 11.58)
7.69***
(5.58 to 10.60)
Social and education workers1.84**
(1.21 to 2.82)
2.00**
(1.30 to 3.08)
1.90**
(1.22 to 2.94)
1.99**
(1.29 to 3.06)
1.97**
(1.28 to 3.03)
1.88**
(1.21 to 2.91)
Other essential workers1.60*
(1.05 to 2.45)
1.30
(0.85 to 1.98)
1.17
(0.76 to 1.80)
1.30
(0.85 to 1.98)
1.27
(0.83 to 1.94)
1.15
(0.75 to 1.77)
Detailed occupational groups of essential workers
Non-essential workers (reference)111111
Healthcare professionals6.19***
(3.68 to 10.43)
8.62***
(4.98 to 14.94)
8.26***
(4.77 to 14.28)
8.70***
(5.02 to 15.06)
9.33***
(5.40 to 16.14)
8.99***
(5.20 to 15.54)
Medical support staff8.70***
(4.87 to 15.55)
7.43***
(4.17 to 13.25)
6.48***
(3.62 to 11.58)
7.39***
(4.13 to 13.19)
7.33***
(4.13 to 13.02)
6.42***
(3.60 to 11.45)
Health associate professionals7.53***
(5.44 to 10.43)
8.54***
(6.13 to 11.90)
7.61***
(5.33 to 10.87)
8.52***
(6.11 to 11.88)
8.54***
(6.12 to 11.92)
7.65***
(5.34 to 10.95)
Social care workers2.46***
(1.47 to 4.14)
2.38**
(1.42 to 4.00)
2.19**
(1.29 to 3.72)
2.36**
(1.40 to 3.97)
2.31**
(1.37 to 3.88)
2.13**
(1.25 to 3.63)
Education workers1.36
(0.75 to 2.48)
1.61
(0.88 to 2.96)
1.59
(0.86 to 2.92)
1.61
(0.88 to 2.95)
1.62
(0.88 to 2.96)
1.59
(0.87 to 2.91)
Food workers1.12
(0.52 to 2.42)
0.93
(0.43 to 1.98)
0.85
(0.40 to 1.83)
0.93
(0.43 to 1.98)
0.92
(0.43 to 1.96)
0.84
(0.39 to 1.80)
Transport workers2.20**
(1.21 to 4.00)
1.66
(0.91 to 3.01)
1.48
(0.81 to 2.70)
1.66
(0.91 to 3.01)
1.58
(0.87 to 2.90)
1.43
(0.78 to 2.63)
Police and protective service workers1.55
(0.72 to 3.32)
1.36
(0.63 to 2.93)
1.21
(0.56 to 2.64)
1.35
(0.62 to 2.92)
1.32
(0.61 to 2.86)
1.19
(0.55 to 2.58)
SOC 2000 major occupational groups
Managers and senior officials (reference)111111
Professional occupations1.36
(0.85 to 2.18)
1.47
(0.91 to 2.36)
1.49
(0.92 to 2.41)
1.47
(0.91 to 2.36)
1.51
(0.94 to 2.43)
1.53
(0.95 to 2.48)
Associate professional and technical occupations3.19***
(2.10 to 4.85)
3.11***
(2.05 to 4.72)
2.73***
(1.77 to 4.23)
3.10***
(2.04 to 4.71)
3.15***
(2.08 to 4.79)
2.78***
(1.79 to 4.29)
Administrative and secretarial occupations1.24
(0.73 to 2.12)
1.14
(0.67 to 1.95)
1.22
(0.71 to 2.11)
1.14
(0.67 to 1.94)
1.17
(0.68 to 2.00)
1.24
(0.72 to 2.15)
Skilled trades occupations0.82
(0.39 to 1.74)
0.67
(0.31 to 1.44)
0.49
(0.22 to 1.06)
0.68
(0.32 to 1.45)
0.69
(0.32 to 1.49)
0.50
(0.23 to 1.09)
Personal service occupations2.73***
(1.56 to 4.76)
2.31**
(1.32 to 4.03)
1.75
(0.99 to 3.10)
2.29**
(1.32 to 4.00)
2.33**
(1.34 to 4.06)
1.77
(1.00 to 3.13)
Sales and customer service occupations1.36
(0.59 to 3.17)
1.09
(0.46 to 2.57)
0.91
(0.38 to 2.18)
1.08
(0.46 to 2.55)
1.08
(0.46 to 2.56)
0.90
(0.38 to 2.16)
Process, plant and machine operatives2.39**
(1.31 to 4.36)
1.82
(0.99 to 3.34)
1.25
(0.66 to 2.36)
1.81
(0.99 to 3.33)
1.81
(0.99 to 3.34)
1.26
(0.67 to 2.37)
Elementary occupations1.76
(0.92 to 3.34)
1.29
(0.65 to 2.53)
0.87
(0.43 to 1.75)
1.28
(0.65 to 2.52)
1.31
(0.67 to 2.59)
0.89
(0.44 to 1.79)
Observations 120 075120 075120 075120 075120 075120 075
  • Coefficients for the covariates not shown.

  • Model 1: Adjusted for age group, sex, ethnicity, country of birth.

  • Model 2: Model 1+socioeconomic deprivation quartile, education level.

  • Model 3: Model 2+shift work, manual work, job tenure, working hours.

  • Model 4: Model 2+number of chronic conditions, long-standing illness/disability.

  • Model 5: Model 2+BMI category, smoking status, alcohol consumption.

  • Model 6: All above covariates.

  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • BMI, body mass index; SOC, Standard Occupation Classification.