Table 4

Crude and inverse probability weighting (IPW) adjusted ORs of positive SARS-CoV-2 (the virus causing COVID-19) RT-PCR assay, positive Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7) and positive Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) screenings by key risk factors among retail essential employees in a single grocery store in Massachusetts, USA

Crude OR (95% CI)IPW adjusted OR (95% CI)Truncated IPW adjusted OR (95% CI)
Positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assay
 Job positions with direct customer exposure at store*6.2 (1.6 to 40.6)5.1 (1.1 to 24.8)5.3 (1.1 to 25.6)
 Cigarette smoker0.1 (0.01 to 0.6)0.2 (0.02 to 1.4)‡0.2 (0.02 to 1.3)‡
Positive GAD-7 screening (GAD-7 >4)
 Ability to practice social distancing consistently at work0.3 (0.1 to 0.7)0.3 (0.1 to 0.9)§0.3 (0.1 to 0.8)§
Positive PHQ-9 screening (PHQ-9 score >4)
 Self-reported exposure to SARS-CoV-2-positive individual(s) in the past 14 days6.3 (1.4 to 33.1)5.0 (1.0 to 25.1)§5.0 (1.0 to 24.9)§
 Ability to practice social distancing consistently at work0.1 (0.02 to 0.6)0.2 (0.03 to 0.99)§0.2 (0.03 to 0.9)§
 Commute to work by foot, bike or private car0.1 (0.03 to 0.6)0.1 (0.02 to 0.7)§0.1 (0.03 to 0.7)§
  • *Direct customer exposure positions include cashier, front end associate, sales associate, fresh food associate, cart attendant, janitorial crew, supervisor and manager of all levels. These are in contrast to positions mainly dealing with consumer goods or the environment, such as stocker, backroom, receiving and maintenance.

  • †IPW adjusting for age, gender, smoking and SARS-CoV-2 community prevalence in workers’ residential cities.

  • ‡IPW adjusting for age, gender, job positions with direct customer exposure, and SARS-CoV-2 community prevalence of workers’ residential cities.

  • §IPW adjusting for age, gender, smoking, customer-facing jobs, SARS-CoV-2 community prevalence of workers’ residential cities and self-reported history of anxiety and/or depression.

  • RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR; Truncated IPW, IPW with extreme weights (below 5th and above 95th percentile) truncated.