Table 1

Basic characteristics of study groups

CovariatesControls (n=152)*Chimney sweeps (n=151)*Creosote-exposed workers (n=19)*P value†
Age (years)43 (20–63)43 (19–66)32 (22–58)0.492
BMI (kg/m2)27 (20–45)26 (19–37)0.019
Relative telomere length0.57 (0.35–1.0)0.56 (0.36–0.97)0.57 (0.33–0.78)0.836
Relative mitochondrial DNA copy number0.87 (0.54–1.7)0.83 (0.51–1.41)0.95 (0.43–1.34)0.162
F2RL3_CpG189.5 (58–100)88.8 (55–99)87.2 (65–96)0.019
F2RL3_CpG2 (cg03636183)76.7 (48–86)76.6 (45–83)73.3 (50–78)0.011
AHRR_CpG175.0 (25–88)73.0 (21–90)74.1 (31–83)0.087
AHRR_CpG269.1 (23–80)66.5 (20–77)68.7 (31–82)0.004
AHRR_CpG3 (cg05575921)90.0 (35–100)88.1 (29–100)84.9 (37–94)0.006
Cigarette smoking
 Current smoker25 (16.4)27 (17.9)3 (15.8)0.915
 Party/ former smoker44 (28.9)49 (32.5)6 (31.6)
 Never smoker83 (54.6)74 (49.0)9 (47.4)
Snus (yes)29 (19.1)52 (34.4)6 (31.6)0.004
Passive smoking (yes)24 (15.8)28 (18.5)5 (26.3)0.384
Exposure from hobby (yes)6 (3.9)9 (6.0)2 (10.5)0.268
Vegetables‡ (≥5 times per week)88 (57.9)96 (63.6)11 (57.9)0.609
Fruits§ (≥5 times per week)88 (57.9)75 (49.7)10 (52.6)0.351
Fish¶ (≥1 per week)70 (46.1)73 (48.3)9 (47.4)0.884
Physical activity**(high)62 (40.8)73 (48.3)7 (36.8)0.370
Education (higher than high school)31 (20.4)24 (15.9)0 (0)††0.100
Current residency (big city)70 (46.1)52 (34.4)11 (57.9)††0.006
  • Values are median (min–max) for continuous variables or n (%) for categorical variable. The content of this table was previously reported (Alhamdow et al, 2018).

  • *Up to two missing cases for some of the variables.

  • P value of Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables.

  • ‡Intake of all kinds of vegetables, legumes and root vegetables (fresh, frozen, canned, stewed, juice, soup and so on).

  • §Intake of all kinds of fruits and berries (fresh, frozen, canned, juice, jam and so on).

  • ¶Intake of all kinds of fish.

  • **At least 30 min per week of sudorific activities such as running and badminton during leisure time.

  • ††Missing data for four participants.

  • BMI, body mass index.