Table 3

Linear regression analyses for the associations between urinary concentrations of ∑OH-fluorene (µg/g creatinine) and cancer biomarkers among chimney sweeps, controls and creosote-exposed workers

Model 1
(unadjusted)
Model 2
(age-adjusted and smoking-adjusted)
Model 3
(age-adjusted and pack-years-adjusted among smokers)
B (95% CI)P valueB (95% CI)P valueB (95% CI)P value
Chimney sweeps n=143 * n=142* n=27†
 Relative telomere length−0.013 (−0.036 to 0.0096)0.25−0.0046 (−0.031 to 0.022)0.73−0.019 (−0.073 to 0.034)0.46
 Relative mtDNAcn−0.0017 (−0.039 to 0.035)0.930.0081 (−0.038 to 0.054)0.730.028 (−0.097 to 0.15)0.65
F2RL3_CpG1−6.0 (−7.1 to −4.9)<0.001‡−4.0 (−5.3 to −2.7)<0.001‡−5.9 (−9.5 to −2.3)0.003
F2RL3_CpG2 (cg03636183)−5.1 (−6.2 to −4.0)<0.001‡−2.7 (−3.9 to −1.5)<0.001‡−4.2 (−7.6 to −0.8)0.019
AHRR_CpG1−10 (−12 to to 8.3)<0.001‡−5.9 (−8.2 to −3.5)<0.001‡−8.2 (−13 to −3.5)0.002
AHRR_CpG2−10 (−12 to to 8.5)<0.001‡−5.8 (−7.8 to −3.8)<0.001‡−7.7 (−12 to −3.7)0.001
AHRR_CpG3 (cg05575921)−14 (−16 to to 12)<0.001‡−7.1 (−9.6 to −4.7)<0.001‡−10 (−16 to to 5.1)0.001
Controls n=147 * n=147 * n=25
 Relative telomere length−0.016 (−0.044 to 0.012)0.270.049 (−0.0014 to 0.099)0.060.060 (−0.0023 to 0.12)0.058
 Relative mtDNAcn−0.069 (−0.12 to -0.021)0.005‡−0.0038 (−0.091 to 0.084)0.93−0.012 (−0.10 to 0.079)0.78
F2RL3_CpG1−6.5 (−7.8 to −5.1)<0.001‡−3.9 (−6.3 to −1.6)0.001‡−2.4 (−6.7 to 1.9)0.26
F2RL3_CpG2 (cg03636183)−6.8 (−8.0 to −5.6)<0.001‡−3.7 (−5.7 to −1.8)<0.001‡−2.6 (−6.3 to 1.1)0.15
AHRR_CpG1−12 (−14 to to 9.9)<0.001‡−6.8 (−11 to −2.7)0.001‡−3.0 (−9.2 to 3.2)0.32
AHRR_CpG2−11 (−13 to to 8.9)<0.001‡−5.7 (-9.3 to -2.0)0.003‡−3.3 (−8.9 to 2.3)0.23
AHRR_CpG3 (cg05575921)−18 (−20 to to 16)<0.001‡−8.2 (−12 to −4.6)<0.001‡−5.5 (−11 to 0.1)0.055
Creosote-exposed workers n=19 n=18 n=3
 Relative telomere length−0.00045 (−0.0026 to 0.0017)0.66−0.001 (−0.0039 to 0.0018)0.45
 Relative mtDNAcn0.00088 (−0.0038 to 0.0055)0.69−0.00012 (−0.0066 to 0.0063)0.97
F2RL3_CpG1−0.10 (−0.24 to 0.037)0.14−0.10 (−0.29 to 0.087)0.27
F2RL3_CpG2 (cg03636183)−0.086 (−0.22 to 0.045)0.18−0.12 (−0.29 to 0.052)0.16
AHRR_CpG1−0.081 (−0.36 to 0.20)0.55−0.12 (−0.47 to 0.23)0.47
AHRR_CpG2−0.079 (−0.35 to 0.19)0.55−0.12 (−0.46 to 0.22)0.46
AHRR_CpG3 (cg05575921)−0.11 (−0.42 to 0.19)0.45−0.062 (−0.40 to 0.27)0.69
  • Model 1: (cancer biomarker: outcome)=intercept + B.(∑OH-fluorene).

  • Model 2: (cancer biomarker: outcome)=intercept + B(∑OH-fluorene)+B1.age+B2.smoking.

  • Model 3: (cancer biomarker: outcome)=intercept + B(∑OH-fluorene)+B1.age+B2.(pack-years) .

  • *There was one missing case for some of the outcomes (eg, AHRR_CpG3_cg05575921).

  • †There were two missing cases among chimney sweeps and four missing cases among the controls.

  • ‡Significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons (FDR<0.05)

  • B, unstandardised beta estimate; mtDNAcn, mitochondrial DNA copy number; ∑OH-fluorene, sum of 2-hydroxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyfluorene.