Table 2

Main effects of health on early retirement, economic inactivity, disability and unemployment

Early retirement HRb (95% CI)Economic inactivity HRb (95% CI)Disability HRb (95% CI)Unemployment HRb (95% CI)
Less than good SRH
The Netherlands0.86 (0.59 to 1.24)1.01 (0.64 to 1.59)5.86 (3.05 to 11.25)**1.58 (0.80 to 3.10)
Denmark1.51 (1.28 to 1.78)**N/A8.14 (5.33 to 12.44)**1.72 (1.45 to 2.04)**
England1.15 (1.00 to 1.34)†1.14 (0.82 to 1.59)5.77 (3.75 to 8.90)**1.72 (1.27 to 2.33)**
Germany1.08 (0.79 to 1.47)1.15 (0.78 to 1.70)N/Ac1.46 (0.90 to 2.38)
Functional limitations
The Netherlands0.70 (0.41 to 1.21)1.15 (0.71 to 1.88)7.30 (4.03 to 13.22)**1.01 (0.41 to 2.50)
Denmark1.08 (0.62 to 1.88)N/A6.65 (3.54 to 12.51)**1.32 (0.79 to 2.21)
England1.49 (0.93 to 2.40)†2.28 (1.06 to 4.89)*10.42 (6.48 to 16.75)**1.59 (0.65 to 3.94)
Germany1.29 (0.94 to 1.77)1.57 (1.03 to 2.38)*N/Ac0.88 (0.47 to 1.64)
Depression
The Netherlands0.82 (0.43 to 1.59)1.70 (0.95 to 3.03)†5.56 (2.67 to 11.60)**0.93 (0.28 to 3.07)
Denmark1.49 (1.10 to 2.03)*N/A3.33 (1.84 to 6.05)**2.30 (1.75 to 3.04)**
England1.12 (0.87 to 1.44)1.73 (1.15 to 2.60)**3.30 (2.25 to 4.84)**1.58 (1.05 to 2.38)*
Germany1.26 (0.79 to 2.01)1.77 (1.06 to 2.98)*N/Ac0.72 (0.30 to 1.71)
  • †p≤0.10; *p≤0.05; **p≤0.01. b HR adjusted for education, sex, age at study entry, year, partner status, number of working hours and region.

  • cCase number (n=23) too low.

  • SRH, self-rated health.