Table 2

Prevalence of estimated maternal occupational exposure to solvents during the periconceptional period* and risk of gastroschisis in offspring, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, USA, 1997–2011

Solvent classesGastroschisis cases
(n=879)
Total controls
(n=7817)
UnadjustedAdjusted†
N (%)N (%)OR95% CIOR95% CI
Any solvent
 No exposure813 (92.7%)7233 (92.6%)RefRef
 Exposure64 (7.3%)579 (7.4%)0.980.75 to 1.291.000.75 to 1.32
Aromatic solvents
 No exposure‡859 (97.8%)7651 (97.9%)RefRef
 Exposure19 (2.2%)163 (2.1%)1.040.64 to 1.681.150.69 to 1.92
Chlorinated solvents
 No exposure‡821 (93.6%)7311 (93.6%)
 Exposure56 (6.4%)502 (6.4%)0.980.75 to 1.320.980.73 to 1.32
Stoddard solvents
 No exposure‡858 (97.8%)7658 (98.0%)RefRef
 Exposure19 (2.2%)158 (2.0%)1.070.66 to 1.740.840.51 to 1.39
  • Totals do not add up due to missing data.

  • *One month before conception through 3 months after conception.

  • †Adjusted for maternal age at delivery as a continuous variable (no missing values).

  • ‡No exposure for outcome under analysis.