Table 1

Baseline characteristics of gastroschisis cases and controls, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, USA, 1997–2011

Gastroschisis cases
(n=879)
Total controls
(n=7817)
N (%)N (%)
Maternal age at delivery (years)*
 <20246 (28.0%)492 (6.3%)
 20–24408 (46.4%)1747 (22.3%)
 25–29161 (18.3%)2240 (28.7%)
 30–3452 (5.9%)2163 (27.7%)
 ≥3512 (1.4%)1176 (15.0%)
Maternal education*
 ≤12 years498 (56.9%)2504 (32.1%)
 >12 years377 (43.1%)5300 (67.9%)
Maternal race-ethnicity*
 Non-Hispanic white503 (57.2%)5003 (64.0%)
 Non-Hispanic black83 (9.4%)899 (11.5%)
 Hispanic223 (25.4%)1433 (18.3%)
 Other70 (8.0%)482 (6.2%)
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)*
 Underweight (<18.5)63 (7.3%)352 (4.6%)
 Normal weight (18.5–25)603 (69.6%)4125 (53.9%)
 Overweight (25-30)159 (18.3%)1772 (23.2%)
 Obese (>30)42 (4.8%)1403 (18.3%)
Parity*
 0611 (69.5%)3514 (45.0%)
 ≥1268 (30.5%)4301 (55.0%)
Maternal cigarette smoking during periconceptional period*†
 Yes485 (55.2%)2498 (32.0%)
 No391 (44.8%)5302 (68.0%)
Maternal alcohol use during periconceptional period*
 Yes429 (48.9%)3327 (42.7%)
 No448 (51.2%)4464 (56.7%)
Maternal illicit drug use during periconceptional period*‡
 Yes117 (13.3%)329 (4.2%)
 No761 (86.7%)7486 (95.8%)
  • Totals do not add up due to missing data.

  • *Significant difference between cases and controls (p value <0.05) using X2 tests.

  • †Self-reported cigarette smoking and secondhand cigarette smoke exposure at work and at home.

  • ‡Included marijuana, hash, cocaine, crack, hallucinogens, heroin and mushrooms.

  • BMI, body mass index;