Table 3

Prevalence of estimated maternal occupational exposure to solvents during the periconceptional perioda and risk of gastroschisis in offspring, stratified by isolated vs multiple defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, USA, 1997–2011

Solvent classesIsolated defects
(cases n=801/controls n=7817)
Multiple defects
(cases n=78/controls n=7817)
ExposedCrudeAdjusted†ExposedCrudeAdjusted†
CasesControlsOR95% CIaOR95% CICasesControlsOR95% CIaOR95% CI
Any solvent53 (6.6%)579 (7.4%)0.890.66 to 1.190.900.66 to 1.2211 (14.1%)579 (7.4%)2.051.08 to 3.902.111.10 to 4.06
Aromatic solvents16 (2.0%)163 (2.1%)0.960.57 to 1.611.050.61 to 1.81<3NCNC
Chlorinated solvent49 (6.1%)502 (6.4%)0.950.70 to 1.290.940.69 to 1.297 (9.0%)502 (6.4%)1.440.66 to 3.141.440.65 to 3.17
Stoddard solvents18 (2.3%)158 (2.0%)1.120.68 to 1.830.870.52 to 1.46≤3NCNC
  • *One month before conception through 3 months after conception.

  • †Adjusted for maternal age at delivery as a continuous variable (no missing values).

  • NC, not calculated due to sparse data (n≤3 individuals).