Table 2

Associations of physical and psychosocial work-related factors with disability retirement due to a shoulder lesion among men and women

Model 1*Model 2†Model 3‡
HR95% CIHR95% CIHR95% Cl
Men
Physical work load factors
 Physically heavy work 3.88 3.46 to 4.34 2.90 2.37 to 3.55 1.88 1.56 to 2.26
 Heavy lifting 2.47 2.22 to 2.75 1.090.93 to 1.271.140.98 to 1.34
 Working in a forward bent posture 3.00 2.69 to 3.33 1.060.86 to 1.311.100.90 to 1.34
 Working with hands above shoulder level 2.95 2.65 to 3.28 1.57 1.35 to 1.81 1.60 1.39 to 1.84
 Work demanding high handgrip forces 3.04 2.73 to 3.38 0.990.78 to 1.250.820.66 to 1.02
Psychosocial work-related factors
 High job demands 1.36 1.23 to 1.51 1.34 1.21 to 1.49 1.30 1.17 to 1.44
 Low job control 2.28 2.02 to 2.58 2.09 1.84 to 2.38 1.22 1.07 to 1.39
 Monotonous work 1.79 1.59 to 2.00 1.31 1.17 to 1.48 1.080.96 to 1.22
Job strain§
 Low strain job1.001.00
 Active job 3.45 2.75 to 4.34 2.54 2.02 to 3.19
 Passive job 4.40 3.59 to 5.39 2.05 1.87 to 2.52
 High strain job 4.50 3.64 to 5.57 2.18 1.76 to 2.71
Women
Physical work load factors
 Physically heavy work 3.65 3.23 to 4.13 3.21 2.80 to 3.90 2.04 1.71 to 2.43
 Heavy lifting 1.62 1.36 to 1.93 0.70 0.57 to 0.86 0.79 0.64 to 0.97
 Working in a forward bent posture 2.35 2.08 to 2.65 1.21 1.03 to 1.42 1.22 1.03 to 1.45
 Working with hands above shoulder level 2.18 1.87 to 2.53 1.040.81 to 1.281.120.89 to 1.41
 Work demanding high handgrip forces 2.90 2.50 to 3.38 1.22 1.05 to 1.65 1.170.93 to 1.49
Psychosocial work-related factors
 High job demands 1.23 1.09 to 1.39 0.910.80 to 1.040.990.87 to 1.14
 Low job control 2.05 1.79 to 2.35 1.43 1.23 to 1.67 0.920.79 to 1.08
 Monotonous work 3.07 2.71 to 3.48 2.71 2.34 to 3.15 2.04 1.75 to 2.37
Job strain§
 Low strain job1.001.00
 Active job 0.49 0.37 to 0.66 0.73 0.55 to 0.98
 Passive job 1.39 1.18 to 1.64 0.970.82 to 1.14
 High strain job 2.26 1.91 to 2.68 1.39 1.17 to 1.65
  • Bold values are statistically significant.

  • *Adjusted for age.

  • †Adjusted for age and other risk factors within the group (either physical or psychosocial).

  • ‡Adjusted for age, education and other risk factors within the group (either physical or psychosocial).

  • §For job strain, the HRs and their 95% CIs in model 1 are adjusted for age and in model 3 for age and education. The reference category for each work-related factor consists of the non-exposed.