Table 1

Background characteristics of the study population

Men (n=574 617)Women (561 037)
N%N%
Age at baseline
 30–3484 50514.770 79312.6
 35–3998 33317.189 47415.9
 40–44103 42618.0100 59417.9
 45–49100 66117.5102 90818.3
 50–5497 17716.9102 18318.2
 55–5990 51515.895 08516.9
Education
 Tertiary198 93634.7252 06845.0
 Secondary251 86243.8217 19038.7
 Primary123 81921.591 77916.3
Major occupational group
 Managers33 3835.815 8872.8
 Professionals100 41817.5104 00718.5
 Technicians103 46518.0124 68922.2
 Office and customer workers19 8673.577 62613.8
 Shop, sales and service workers35 8006.2133 40023.8
 Agricultural workers34 4256.018 1833.2
 Construction, metal and wood workers120 95121.011 8202.1
 Machine operators and assemblers91 15915.924 8614.4
 Unskilled manual workers35 1496.150 5649.0
Employment sector
 Private382 13866.5251 85844.9
 Public98 11117.1258 93046.2
 Other, including self-employed94 36816.450 2499.0
Selected industrial sectors
 Manufacturing156 54827.263 50711.3
 Transportation and storage62 08310.822 3624.0
 Human health and social work activities19 7633.4161 25328.7
Physical work load factors
 Physically heavy work207 97736.2147 48526.3
 Heavy lifting121 88621.246 7738.3
 Working in a forward bent posture199 28234.7177 79131.7
 Working with hands above shoulder level105 96218.451 8409.2
 Work demanding high handgrip forces196 19134.139 5137.0
Psychosocial work-related factors
 High job demands214 82637.4196 62735.1
 Low job control331 10657.6300 55353.6
 Monotonous work118 51320.682 29614.7