Table 4

Linear mixed model with exposure to forward bending ≥60° at work (per 100 min) and change in low-back pain during follow-up (design 2)

Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 5
Observations=407/197/210Observations=399/196/203Observations=398/195/203Observations=393/194/199Observations=393/194/199
Coefficient95% CIP valueCoefficient95% CIP valueCoefficient95% CIP valueCoefficient95% CIP valueCoefficient95% CIP value
TotalT2−0.33−1.24 to 0.580.475−0.29−1.20 to 0.610.528−0.31−1.22 to 0.590.497−0.27−1.18 to 0.630.552−0.30−1.21 to 0.600.510
T3−0.18−1.07 to 0.710.697−0.15−1.04 to 0.740.735−0.21−1.11 to 0.690.644−0.17−1.07 to 0.720.708−0.22−1.12 to 0.670.625
T40.29−0.60 to 1.170.5260.26−0.62 to 1.150.5600.19−0.71 to 1.090.6800.20−0.70 to 1.090.6680.14−0.76 to 1.040.762
T50.52−0.47 to 1.510.3010.59−0.40 to 1.580.2410.56−0.43 to 1.550.2660.60−0.40 to 1.590.2380.59−0.41 to 1.580.246
ConstructionT2−0.62−1.64 to 0.400.231−0.64−1.64 to 0.360.207−0.70−1.69 to 0.280.163−0.74−1.74 to 0.250.142−0.75−1.75 to 0.240.137
T3−0.62−1.62 to 0.380.226−0.67−1.65 to 0.300.176−0.81−1.77 to 0.160.103−0.78−1.76 to 0.190.116−0.79−1.76 to 0.180.111
T40.04−0.96 to 1.030.941−0.13−1.11 to 0.840.789−0.34−1.32 to 0.640.498−0.35−1.34 to 0.630.483−0.37−1.34 to 0.620.460
T50.28−0.83 to 1.390.6260.28−0.81 to 1.360.6190.20−0.87 to 1.270.7110.26−0.82 to 1.340.6350.26−0.81 to 1.340.634
HealthcareT21.64−0.81 to 4.080.1901.87−0.62 to 4.360.1411.96−0.53 to 4.460.1232.14−0.41 to 4.700.1001.97−0.58 to 4.520.129
T32.23−0.29 to 4.890.0812.66−0.04 to 5.540.0532.850.14 to 5.56 0.039 2.900.12 to 5.69 0.041 2.56−0.23 to 5.350.072
T41.22−1.37 to 3.810.3551.50−1.19 to 4.180.2751.58−1.11 to 4.270.2481.59−1.14 to 3.330.2531.34−1.39 to 4.080.337
T51.38−1.47 to 4.230.3421.50−1.39 to 4.400.3091.46−1.43 to 4.360.3221.51−1.15 to 4.520.3251.30−1.70 to 4.310.395
  • T2: 6 months, T3: 12 months, T4: 18 months, T5: 24 months. Observations: total observations included in models for total/construction/healthcare; p≤0.05 in bold.

  • Dependent variable: change in pain between T1 and TX.

  • Independent variables: Model 1: forward bending at work (min/workday). Model 2: as model 1+age, gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI). Model 3: as model 2+heavy lifting. Model 4: as model 3+social climate, decision control, fair leadership, empowering leadership. Model 5: as model 4+objectively measured sitting at work (min/workday).