Table 1

Descriptive characteristics of the study participants at baseline (n=125)

VariablesTotal (n=125) Construction (n=61)Healthcare (n=64)
Age (years)42.011.939.813.544.19.9
Gender (male)59.298.421.9
Body mass index (kg/m2)25.33.625.63.325.03.8
Seniority in profession16.411.216.912.616.09.7
Normal work hours per week36.
Work hours measured per day7.
Bending ≥30° at work (min)86.446.294.352.879.238.2
Bending ≥60° at work (min)21.519.727.725.015.810.3
LBPi at baseline (0–3)
 Not troubled44.348.340.3
 A little troubled25.426.724.2
 Rather intensely troubled28.725.032.3
 Very intensely troubled1.60.03.2
Sitting duration at work (min)165.0104.3158.2114.6171.693.8
Heavy lifting at work (0–3)*
Social climate at work (1–5)†
Decision control at work (1–5)‡
Fair leadership (1–5)‡
Empowering leadership (1–5)‡
  • *Response alternatives: (0) No, (1) Yes, 1–4 times, (2) Yes, 5–19 times, (3) Yes, at least 20 times a day.

  • †Response alternatives for supportive, trustful and comfortable climate: (1) Very little or not at all, (2) Rather little, (3) Somewhat, (4) Rather much, (5) Very much.

  • ‡Response alternatives: (1) Very seldom or never, (2) Rather seldom, (3) Sometimes, (4) Rather often, (5) Very often or always.

  • LBPi, low-back pain intensity.