Table 3

Linear mixed model with exposure to forward bending ≥30° at work (per 100 min) and change in low-back pain during follow-up (design 2)

Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 5
Observations=407/197/210Observations=399/196/203Observations=398/195/203Observations=393/194/199Observations=393/194/199
Coefficient95% CIP valueCoefficient95% CIP valueCoefficient95% CIP valueCoefficient95% CIP valueCoefficient95% CIP value
TotalT20.12−0.26 to 0.500.5280.13−0.25 to 0.510.5020.12−0.26 to 0.500.5230.15−0.23 to 0.520.4510.14−0.23 to 0.520.459
T30.05−0.34 to 0.450.7990.05−0.34 to 0.450.8020.04−0.35 to 0.440.8330.06−0.33 to 0.450.7620.05−0.34 to 0.440.785
T40.25−0.14 to 0.630.2140.23−0.16 to 0.620.2550.21−0.18 to 0.600.2820.23−0.16 to 0.620.2420.22−0.16 to 0.610.256
T50.19−0.28 to 0.660.4220.22−0.25 to 0.690.3670.22−0.25 to 0.690.3640.24−0.23 to 0.710.3120.22−0.25 to 0.680.362
ConstructionT2−0.23−0.70 to 0.240.342−0.25−0.70 to 0.210.294−0.26−0.71 to 0.190.251−0.25−0.70 to 0.200.280−0.25−0.70 to 0.200.277
T3−0.33−0.82 to 0.150.180−0.36−0.83 to 0.110.137−0.38−0.84 to 0.090.114−0.36−0.82 to 0.110.137−0.35−0.82 to 0.110.137
T4−0.05−0.52 to 0.420.828−0.15−0.61 to 0.310.527−0.19−0.65 to 0.260.405−0.18−0.64 to 0.280.444−0.18−0.64 to 0.280.439
T50.23−0.40 to 0.850.4780.24−0.37 to 0.850.4350.27−0.33 to 0.860.3840.28−0.33 to 0.880.3700.27−0.33 to 0.870.375
HealthcareT20.840.20 to 1.48 0.010 0.890.23 to 1.54 0.008 0.900.25 to 1.55 0.007 0.960.32 to 1.61 0.003 0.950.31 to 1.59 0.004
T30.810.14 to 1.49 0.018 0.830.15 to 1.52 0.018 0.850.16 to 1.54 0.016 0.900.23 to 1.58 0.009 0.860.19 to 1.54 0.012
T40.850.17 to 1.52 0.014 0.930.23 to 1.63 0.009 0.940.24 to 1.63 0.009 0.970.29 to 1.65 0.005 0.950.27 to 1.63 0.006
T50.42−0.29 to 1.120.2510.46−0.26 to 1.180.2130.46−0.27 to 1.180.2170.48−0.23 to 1.120.1840.44−0.27 to 1.150.226
  • T2: 6 months, T3: 12 months, T4: 18 months, T5: 24 months. Observations: total observations included in models for total/construction/healthcare; p≤0.05 in bold.

  • Dependent variable: change in pain between T1 and TX.

  • Independent variables: Model 1: forward bending at work (min/workday). Model 2: as model 1+age, gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI). Model 3: as model 2+heavy lifting. Model 4: as model 3+social climate, decision control, fair leadership, empowering leadership. Model 5: as model 4+objectively measured sitting at work (min/workday).