Table 2

Linear mixed model with exposure to ≥30° and ≥60° forward bending at work (per 100 min) and average low-back pain during follow-up (design 1)

 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Observations=291/141/150 Observations=285/140/145 Observations=284/139/145 Observations=281/138/143 Observations=281/138/143 Coefficient 95% CI P value Coefficient 95% CI P value Coefficient 95% CI P value Coefficient 95% CI P value Coefficient 95% CI P value ≥30° All workers −0.08 −0.50 to 0.24 0.625 −0.13 −0.47 to 0.21 0.453 −0.13 −0.46 to 0.21 0.467 −0.12 −0.45 to 0.21 0.480 −0.11 −0.44 to 0.21 0.486 Construction −0.25 −0.64 to 0.14 0.204 −0.32 −0.72 to 0.08 0.113 −0.32 −0.72 to 0.08 0.121 −0.33 −0.71 to 0.05 0.089 −0.32 −0.71 to 0.06 0.100 Healthcare 0.26 −0.33 to 0.84 0.385 0.24 −0.38 to 0.86 0.448 0.24 −0.37 to 0.86 0.439 0.29 −0.35 to 0.92 0.377 0.15 −0.45 to 0.76 0.623 ≥60° All workers 0.18 −0.56 to 0.92 0.638 0.13 −0.67 to 0.92 0.753 0.18 −0.63 to 0.99 0.667 0.20 −0.60 to 1.00 0.626 −0.26 −1.11 to 0.59 0.547 Construction 0.05 −0.76 to 0.85 0.912 −0.15 −1.01 to 0.71 0.736 −0.07 −0.95 to 0.81 0.873 −0.37 −1.25 to 0.51 0.409 −0.57 −1.51 to 0.38 0.243 Healthcare 1.70 −0.61 to 4.00 0.149 1.75 −0.72 to 4.21 0.164 1.72 −0.71 to 4.15 0.164 1.80 −0.66 to 4.27 0.151 0.02 −2.86 to 2.90 0.990
• Observations: total observations included in linear mixed models for all workers/construction/healthcare.

• Dependent variable: the average pain intensity from 6 to 24 months’ follow-up (T2, T3, T4, T5).

• Independent variables: Model 1: forward bending at work (min/workday). Model 2: as model 1+age, gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI). Model 3: as model 2+heavy lifting. Model 4: as model 3+social climate, decision control, fair leadership, empowering leadership. Model 5: as model 4+objectively measured sitting at work (min/workday).

• .LBPi, low-back pain intensity.