Table 2

Linear mixed model with exposure to ≥30° and ≥60° forward bending at work (per 100 min) and average low-back pain during follow-up (design 1)

Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 5
Observations=291/141/150Observations=285/140/145Observations=284/139/145Observations=281/138/143Observations=281/138/143
Coefficient95% CIP valueCoefficient95% CIP valueCoefficient95% CIP valueCoefficient95% CIP valueCoefficient95% CIP value
≥30°
All workers−0.08−0.50 to 0.240.625−0.13−0.47 to 0.210.453−0.13−0.46 to 0.210.467−0.12−0.45 to 0.210.480−0.11−0.44 to 0.210.486
Construction−0.25−0.64 to 0.140.204−0.32−0.72 to 0.080.113−0.32−0.72 to 0.080.121−0.33−0.71 to 0.050.089−0.32−0.71 to 0.060.100
Healthcare0.26−0.33 to 0.840.3850.24−0.38 to 0.860.4480.24−0.37 to 0.860.4390.29−0.35 to 0.920.3770.15−0.45 to 0.760.623
≥60°
All workers0.18−0.56 to 0.920.6380.13−0.67 to 0.920.7530.18−0.63 to 0.990.6670.20−0.60 to 1.000.626−0.26−1.11 to 0.590.547
Construction0.05−0.76 to 0.850.912−0.15−1.01 to 0.710.736−0.07−0.95 to 0.810.873−0.37−1.25 to 0.510.409−0.57−1.51 to 0.380.243
Healthcare1.70−0.61 to 4.000.1491.75−0.72 to 4.210.1641.72−0.71 to 4.150.1641.80−0.66 to 4.270.1510.02−2.86 to 2.900.990
  • Observations: total observations included in linear mixed models for all workers/construction/healthcare.

  • Dependent variable: the average pain intensity from 6 to 24 months’ follow-up (T2, T3, T4, T5).

  • Independent variables: Model 1: forward bending at work (min/workday). Model 2: as model 1+age, gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI). Model 3: as model 2+heavy lifting. Model 4: as model 3+social climate, decision control, fair leadership, empowering leadership. Model 5: as model 4+objectively measured sitting at work (min/workday).

  • .LBPi, low-back pain intensity.