Table 1

Characteristics of studies investigating the association of acute exposure to outdoor particulate air pollution and FEV1 in healthy adults (n=13)

Authors/dateRegion/countryPopulation (n)AgeTime periodPollutants (µg/m3) and measurement method/resolutionOutcome (change per 10 µg/m3 increase in pollutant when applicable)Statistical model
(adequate control for confounding)
Change in FEV1
 Stieb et al 44 Ontario, CanadaHealthy adults ages 55+ years (77).Mean age: 64 years.2013–2014Daily mean PM2.5 (mean 12.3–15.9).
Fixed site 1 km by 1.5 km resolution (on site).
−9.38 mL (95% CI −18.02 to −0.74).Linear mixed-effect regression models
 Int Panis et al 43 BelgiumHealthy adults (2449).Mean age: 37 years.2011–2015Daily mean PM10 (mean 24.3).
Fixed site 6 km away.
−15.8 mL (95% CI −21.9 to −9.6).Random intercept model
 Hao et al 32 Junan County, ChinaHealthy adults (42).Mean age: 55 years.2011–2012Daily mean PM2.5 (mean 146.5).
Personal sampler pump.
−1.73 mL (95% CI −5.90 to 2.41).Linear mixed-effects models
 Huang et al 33 Beijing, ChinaHealthy non-smoking university students (40).Mean age: 24 years.2012Daily mean PM2.5 (mean 162.1).
Personal sampler backpack.
−0.39 mL (95% CI −8.20 to 7.812).Mixed linear models
 Santos et al 37 São Paulo, BrazilStreet/park workers, males, non-smokers aged 18–65 years (101).Mean age: 48.4 years.2008–2012Daily mean PM2.5 (mean 36.6).
Personal sampler.
−53.00 mL (95% CI −112.0 to 6.0).Multiple linear regressions
 Kesavachandran et al 34 National Capital Area, IndiaNon-smokers aged 18–50 years with no history of respiratory disease (757).Mean age: 31.4 years.Not specifiedDaily mean PM2.5 (median 238).
Personal sampler.
−10.00 mL (95% CI −14.71 to −5.29).Regression models
 Girardot et al 30 Tennessee, USANon-smoking adults (354).Mean age: 43.2 years.2002–20031 hour mean PM2.5 (mean 15.0).
Fixed monitor on site.
−1.01 mL (95% CI −22.88 to 20.85).Multiple linear regressions
 Trenga et al 39 Seattle,
Elderly non-smokers (33).Median age: 76 years.1999–2002Daily median PM2.5 (median 8.6).
Personal monitor.
−29.00 mL (95% CI −62.50 to 4.50).Mixed-effects random intercepts regression model
 Korrick et al 35 New Hampshire, USANon-smoking adults (530).Mean age: 35 years.1991–1992Daily mean PM2.5 levels (mean 15).
Fixed site monitor on site.
−13.90 mL (95% CI −26.00 to −1.80).Logistic regression model
Absolute FEV1
 Borlée et al 25 The Netherlands, multiple regionsAdults from general population (10% COPD) (2308).Mean age 54.72014–2015Weekly mean PM10 (median 18.9).
Fixed site monitor.
PM10: −12.5 mL (95% CI −36.0 to 10.5).Mixed generalised additive model
 Zhou et al 40 China, multiple regionsLifelong non-smoking females (1694).Mean age: 56.0 years.2014–2015Daily mean PM10 and PM2.5 (112.3 and 60.71).
Fixed site monitor.
PM10: 0.05 mL (95% CI −0.13 to 0.2).
PM2.5: 0.13 mL (95% CI −0.26 to 0.51).
Linear mixed model
 Cakmak et al 26 Canada, multiple regionsCanadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) cohort: ages 6–79 years (5011).Mean age: 39.3.2007–2009Daily mean PM2.5 (mean 6).
Fixed site monitor.
−40.29 mL (95% CI −71.89 to 8.50).Generalised linear mixed model
 Steinvil et al 38 Tel Aviv, IsraelTel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center Inflammation Survey (TAMCIS) cohort: never-smokers with no respiratory or cancer history (2380).Mean age: 43 years.2002–2007Daily and weekly mean PM10 (mean 61.8).
Fixed site monitor.
Daily: −0.36 mL (95% CI −3.27 to 2.18).Linear regression model
  • FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s.