Table 2

Univariate models of relative risks (RR) of verbal abuse reported by home care aides in the past 12 months, by work-organisational and client-related characteristics, Safe Home Care Survey, Massachusetts, USA

Number of aides
Verbal abuse in past 12 months*
Number reporting verbal abuseRR95%  CI
Work-organisational characteristics
Hire type
 Client330590.760.58 to 1.00
Predictable hours
 Yes6141130.650.51 to 0.83
Job is stable
 Yes6371410.970.73 to 1.28
Did not have the time I needed
 Yes‡100331.601.17 to 2.18
Use any client handling/transfer device
 Yes4031021.361.06 to 1.75
Safety measures
 Aide is provided with gloves and knows where to report blood exposures7621700.790.53 to 1.16
 Aide lacks one or both of the above†7421
Did not have a clear care plan
 Yes‡117391.621.21 to 2.17
Client characteristics
Language discordance
 Yes§184451.160.87 to 1.55
 Yes§3551061.651.29 to 2.10
Mental illness/psychological issues
 Yes§304911.581.24 to 2.01
Limited mobility
 Yes§7091731.731.21 to 2.47
Client smokes indoors
 Yes§238631.291.00 to 1.67
Too little space made it hard to work
 Yes§219761.921.51 to 2.44
  • *Defined as at least one incident of verbal abuse in the past year.

  • †Referent.

  • ‡Aides who reported this working condition during at least one recent client visit within the past month.

  • §Aides who reported at least one recent visit to a client with this characteristic within the past month.