Table 1

Participants, interventions, comparators, outcomes, study (PICOS) designs

ParticipantsAt least 18 years old. Adults presenting cardiometabolic disorders and healthy adults.
InterventionsIntervention with conventional seats, seated active workstations (eg, cycling desk and elliptical pedal desk) and upright active workstations (eg, standing desk, treadmill desk). Interventions were performed in a laboratory or free-living environment.
Comparative factorsDifferent types of workstations (ie, standing, treadmill, recumbent pedal, elliptical pedal and cycling).
OutcomesBiomechanical: measurement of muscle activation, posture and joint angles, as well as kinematics.
Physiological: heart rate, oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, blood pressure, perceived exertion and pressure pain thresholds.
Work performance: quantitative and qualitative measurements of typing, mouse pointing, multitasking, perception of task, attention to task, speech assessment and memory tasks.
Psychobiological: quantitative and qualitative measurement of arousal, stress, boredom, task satisfaction, and quantitative measurement of salivary cortisol and encephalography.
Study designsPilot study, randomised cross-over full-factorial study, randomised repeated measures design, within participant experimental design, experimental mixed-model study.