Table 1

Biomechanical risk factors included in the JEM

Intensity of handgrip force1–3*
Intensity of upper extremity load1–3*
Frequency of repetitive elbow flexion and extension work1–3*
Frequency of repetitive wrist flexion and extension work1–3*
Frequency of hand-held tool use1–3*
Frequency of upper extremity static work1–3*
Frequency of full wrist extension1–3*
Frequency of full elbow extension1–3*
Frequency of using a hand-held tool in a fixed position1–3*
Frequency of leaning on the elbow1 or 3†
Magnitude of hand–arm vibration1–3‡
Frequency of impact shocks during HAV1 or 3§
  • *1=low, 2=moderate, 3=high.

  • †1=no, 3=yes.

  • ‡1=none, 2=acceptable, 3=high.

  • §1=rare, 3=often.

  • JEM, job exposure matrix.