Table 1

Risk of death from selected cancers by 15-year lagged cumulative exposure to rubber dust and rubber fumes in a cohort of rubber factory workers in the UK

MalignancyNCumulative rubber dust
(year* mg/m3)
Cumulative rubber fumes
(year* mg/m3)
Exposure*SHR†95% CIExposure‡SHR†95% CI
All malignant neoplasms9101II
II1.391.31 to 1.47II1.381.3 to 1.46
III1.671.58 to 1.78III1.911.8 to 2.03
IV1.651.58 to 1.75IV1.661.57 to 1.76
P for trend<0.01<0.01
Bladder417II
II1.61.19 to 2.15II1.431.07 to 1.92
III2.491.89 to 3.29III3.122.38 to 4.09
IV2.561.95 to 3.37IV2.241.71 to 2.95
P for trend0.60.98
Lung3377II
II1.31.19 to 1.43II1.161.06 to 1.27
III1.341.22 to 1.48III1.551.41 to 1.71
IV1.441.31 to 1.58IV1.521.39 to 1.66
P for trend<0.01<0.01
Stomach768II
II1.321.08 to 1.6II1.451.2 to 1.74
III1.781.47 to 2.15III1.751.43 to 2.15
IV1.591.3 to 1.93IV1.561.28 to 1.88
P for trend0.940.83
Leukaemia195II
II1.290.85 to 1.96II1.320.88 to 1.96
III2.421.66 to 3.52III2.11.42 to 3.09
IV2.411.66 to 3.51IV2.11.45 to 3.05
P for trend<0.01<0.01
Multiple myeloma462II
II1.41.08 to 1.8II1.481.15 to 1.91
III1.991.55 to 2.55III2.121.65 to 2.73
IV1.81.39 to 2.34IV1.811.41 to 2.33
P for trend0.270.04
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma141II
II1.510.97 to 2.35II1.661.04 to 2.64
III1.671.06 to 2.64III2.271.43 to 3.58
IV1.210.72 to 2.02IV1.580.97 to 2.57
P for trend0.650.98
Oesophagus333II
II1.811.34 to 2.45II2.031.49 to 2.77
III2.261.67 to 3.08III2.551.85 to 3.51
IV2.011.46 to 2.76IV2.231.62 to 3.07
P for trend0.250.02
Prostate885II
II2.251.8 to 2.81II2.622.1 to 3.28
III3.372.73 to 4.16III4.033.26 to 4.99
IV2.962.38 to 3.67IV2.842.27 to 3.55
P for trend0.260.04
Larynx62II
II0.950.45 to 2.02II1.110.58 to 2.11
III1.670.87 to 3.2III1.110.52 to 2.33
IV1.730.91 to 3.27IV1.470.78 to 2.76
P for trend0.690.5
Brain106II
II1.060.64 to 1.77II1.310.78 to 2.2
III2.221.39 to 3.53III1.220.67 to 2.2
IV0.510.23 to 1.13IV1.530.91 to 2.59
P for trend<0.010.06
Pancreas328II
II1.451.07 to 1.96II1.951.45 to 2.62
III21.49 to 2.69III2.481.82 to 3.38
IV1.931.42 to 2.62IV1.831.33 to 2.51
P for trend0.070.02
Liver122II
II2.861.67 to 4.89II2.021.21 to 3.39
III3.121.81 to 5.35III3.352.05 to 5.46
IV3.41.96 to 5.89IV2.311.36 to 3.94
P for trend0.240.3
In situ, benign and tumours of unknown origin36II
II0.170.02 to 1.24II0.670.23 to 1.98
III0.720.22 to 2.37III1.280.37 to 4.38
IV1.670.71 to 3.92IV1.210.49 to 3.02
P for trend0.010.06
Cancers associated with the rubber industry§6860II
II1.381.29 to 1.47II1.361.27 to 1.45
III1.691.58 to 1.81III1.881.75 to 2.01
IV1.631.53 to 1.74IV1.651.55 to 1.77
P for trend<0.01<0.01
  • *Exposure quartiles I: <9.50 year mg/m3 (400 269.3 person years); II: 9.50–16.68 year mg/m3 (197 237.6 person years); III: 16.68–27.03 year mg/m3 (145 564.8 person years); IV: >27.03 year mg/m3 (137 631.9 person years).

  • †SHRs from competing risk survival analysis adjusted for birth year.

  • ‡Exposure quartiles I: <2.98 year mg/m3 (395 023.3 person years); II: 2.98–5.55 year mg/m3 (204 533.3 person years); III: 5.55–9.36 year mg/m3 (130 505 person years); IV: >9.36 year mg/m3 (150 732 person years).

  • §Cancers of the bladder, lung, stomach, oesophagus, prostate, larynx, brain, pancreas, liver, lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue.

  • SHR, subdistribution HR.