Table 1

Comparison between exposure estimates for symptomatic (pain >6) and asymptomatic (asymp) individuals

Exposure variableDescriptionN (asymp)N (full)Within-job variance (asymp)Within-job variance (full)β estimateP value
Physical intensityHow would you describe the intensity of the physical efforts of your work during a typical day?26 82134 7886.136.650.850.00
StandDuring a typical day of work: are you standing?29 59735 0170.550.560.090.00
RepetitionOn a typical day of work: do you repeat the same actions more than two times to four times per minute?26 42434 2970.971.050.270.00
Change tasksOn a typical day of work: can you interrupt your work or change tasks or activities for 10 min or more each hour?26 58134 5201.111.13−0.110.00
Rest eyesDuring a typical day of work: can you rest your eyes for a few seconds outside of work breaks?31 84834 5101.001.01−0.180.00
Kneel or squatDuring a typical day of work: do you kneel or squat?29 57434 9630.510.550.180.00
Bend trunkDuring a typical day of work: do you lean forward or sideways regularly or for prolonged periods?30 85334 9200.620.660.270.00
Drive machineryOn a typical day of work: do you drive construction machinery, a tractor, a self-propelled fork-lift or other mobile machinery at your workplace (except car or truck)?29 38534 9840.150.160.010.09
Drive car or truckOn a typical day of work: do you drive a vehicle (automobile, truck, bus, ambulance, motorcycle, etc) on public roads, excluding commuting?29 35734 9510.490.500.040.00
Handle objects 1–4 kgHow much time do you spend doing the following tasks or activities: handling or regularly moving a load, a part, an object weighing between 1 kg and 4 kg?31 11634 6441.341.380.250.00
Handle objects >4 kgHow much time do you spend doing the following tasks or activities: handling or regularly moving a load, a part, an object weighing more than 4 kg?28 30634 5550.910.980.210.00
Carry loads <10 kgHow much time do you spend doing the following tasks or activities: carry a load that weighs less than 10 kg?28 24034 4750.830.890.190.00
Carry loads 10–25 kgHow much time do you spend doing the following tasks or activities: carry a load that weighs 10 kg to 25 kg?28 29734 5680.540.600.170.00
Carry loads >25 kgHow much time do you spend doing the following tasks or activities: carry a load that weighs more than 25 kg?28 27134 5330.410.450.140.00
Use vibrating toolsOn a typical day of work, do you use: vibrating tools or place your hand(s) on vibrating machines?28 43734 7470.160.190.060.00
Use computer screenDuring a typical day of work, do you use: a computer screen or control panel?31 01734 7920.550.560.010.19
Use keyboard or scannerDuring a typical day of work, do you use: a keyboard, a mouse, or similar device (optical pen, scanner) to enter data?28 43734 7350.610.63−0.010.98
Bend neckHow long do you spend in the following posture during a typical day of work: bending your head forward regularly or for a prolonged period?32 04834 7321.141.140.360.00
Arms above shoulderHow long do you spend in the following posture during a typical day of work: work with one or two arms in the air (above the shoulders) regularly or for a prolonged period?32 71234 8340.410.430.230.00
Reach behindHow long do you spend in the following posture during a typical day of work: reaching regularly for items behind your back?29 48234 8390.300.340.150.00
Arms abductedHow long do you spend in the following posture during a typical day of work: working with one or two arms separated from the body regularly or for a prolonged period?32 63434 7580.490.520.240.00
Bend elbowHow long do you spend in the following posture during a typical day of work: flex the elbow repeatedly or keep the elbow flexed against resistance?33 72234 7030.550.570.450.00
Rotate forearmHow long do you spend in the following posture during a typical day of work: twist your forearm as if you are using a screwdriver?32 64734 7860.260.280.150.00
Bend wristHow long do you spend in the following posture during a typical day of work: bending the wrist?32 59934 7210.500.530.300.00
Press base of handHow long do you spend in the following posture during a typical day of work: press/tap with the base of the hand on a surface or on a tool?33 12734 7360.190.200.110.00
Finger pinchHow long do you spend in the following posture during a typical day of work: pinch objects with your thumb and forefinger.33 12834 7380.690.710.300.00
Work outdoorsHow long do you spend working outdoors during a typical day of work?35 187
  • Within-job pooled variance between full cohort (symptomatic + asymptomatic workers) and asymptomatic cohort. Linear mixed model (β estimates and p values). Included are descriptions of CONSTANCES exposure questions.