Table 2

Characteristics of the study population, by population group (1975–2014)

CharacteristicsBlack
n=53 248
White
n=30 724
P values
Age (years), mean±SD39.73±11.2761.70±13.98<0.0001
Employment duration (years), mean±SD10.51±8.1124.95±8.90<0.0001
Employment status*, n (%)
Current miner5385 (79.20)473 (13.07)<0.0001
Former miner1414 (20.80)3147 (86.93)
Commodity, n (%)
Gold41 308 (77.58)24 170 (78.67)<0.0001
Platinum6369 (11.96)1087 (3.54)
Coal3414 (6.41)1945 (6.33)
Asbestos1178 (2.21)741 (2.41)
Other 979 (1.84)2781 (9.05)
Any gold service§ 43 506 (81.70)26 203 (85.29)
Silicosis, n (%)7125 (13.38)6817 (22.19)<0.0001
HIV, n (%)7302 (13.71)87 (0.28)<0.0001
Pulmonary tuberculosis, n (%)8977 (16.8)1003 (3.26)<0.0001
  • *Data available from 2007.

  • †Commodity is defined as the mining industry in which miners worked the longest.

  • ‡Includes aluminium, antimony, cement, chrome, construction, environmental asbestos, Eskom, fluorspar, phosphate, industry, lead, lime, mica, minerals, nickel, quarry, refinery, railways, silica, steel, tin, uranium, vanadium, works and zinc.

  • §Any gold service is defined as employment for at least 0.1 years in the gold mining industry.