Table 5

Risk of low-grade and high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) associated with occupational exposure to BTX, benzene, xylene, toluene, styrene and any MAH, according to age at diagnosis/interview

Aged ≤65 yearsAged >65 yearsAged ≤65 yearsAged >65 years
Low-gradeHigh-gradeLow-gradeHigh-gradeLow-gradeHigh-gradeLow-gradeHigh-grade
OR*95% CIOR*95% CIOR*95% CIOR*95% CIOR*95% CIOR* 95% CIOR*95% CIOR*95% CI
Exposure metric BTX Benzene
Unexposed†11111111
Ever exposure1.270.95 to 1.701.160.77 to 1.751.391.03 to 1.881.080.73 to 1.601.380.99 to 1.941.090.67 to 1.771.280.93 to 1.760.990.65 to 1.51
Duration of exposure (years)
 <101.040.68 to 1.591.170.67 to 2.051.510.89 to 2.541.310.67 to 2.571.220.76 to 1.961.220.65 to 2.291.090.61 to 1.961.280.64 to 2.57
 10–251.290.81 to 2.051.260.66 to 2.401.40.84 to 2.351.50.82 to 2.741.160.65 to 2.100.990.41 to 2.371.380.78 to 2.421.580.83 to 3.02
 ≥251.740.98 to 3.090.990.41 to 2.411.330.87 to 2.030.680.36 to 1.292.31.14 to 4.640.920.29 to 2.921.350.86 to 2.130.440.20 to 1.00
P-trend0.04P-trend0.59P-trend0.06P-trend0.77P-trend0.02P-trend0.93P-trend0.1P-trend0.39
Duration of exposure at substantial level ‡(years)
 <100.950.53 to 1.680.790.34 to 1.872.071.06 to 4.060.840.28 to 2.581.060.53 to 2.120.890.32 to 2.471.420.62 to 3.230.80.22 to 2.87
 10–251.540.78 to 3.021.550.62 to 3.901.360.62 to 3.021.150.41 to 3.221.640.65 to 4.131.280.33 to 4.951.830.77 to 4.341.230.38 to 3.97
 ≥252.220.89 to 5.560.40.05 to 3.371.841.00 to 3.360.430.13 to 1.4611.91.45 to 97.61NA1.70.84 to 3.44NA
P-trend0.06P-trend0.89P-trend0.01P-trend0.27P-trend0.01P-trend0.93P-trend0.04P-trend0.09
Cumulative exposure
 Lowest tertile1.240.80 to 1.921.260.70 to 2.272.071.26 to 3.401.140.56 to 2.311.580.93 to 2.671.420.70 to 2.881.540.89 to 2.670.860.38 to 1.93
 Middle tertile1.390.88 to 2.181.370.75 to 2.511.450.86 to 2.451.440.76 to 2.721.220.72 to 2.080.970.45 to 2.121.370.79 to 2.391.720.92 to 3.23
 Highest tertile1.090.62 to 1.940.70.28 to 1.761.020.66 to 1.580.850.48 to 1.501.360.71 to 2.610.820.29 to 2.281.060.65 to 1.710.620.31 to 1.26
P-trend0.19P-trend0.79P-trend0.28P-trend0.99P-trend0.12P-trend0.95P-trend0.34P-trend0.7
Exposure metric Toluene Xylene
Unexposed†
Ever exposure1.210.88 to 1.661.250.81 to 1.931.51.10 to 2.060.790.50 to 1.251.350.95 to 1.921.170.71 to 1.921.380.98 to 1.930.80.49 to 1.29
Duration of exposure
 <100.860.53 to 1.411.250.68 to 2.301.951.09 to 3.490.840.33 to 2.101.140.67 to 1.931.380.71 to 2.721.330.69 to 2.550.870.35 to 2.21
 10–251.260.76 to 2.091.380.70 to 2.711.620.93 to 2.841.240.61 to 2.561.250.70 to 2.221.090.47 to 2.501.811.01 to 3.251.310.61 to 2.79
 ≥251.981.05 to 3.721.070.40 to 2.821.240.80 to 1.930.550.27 to 1.112.11.02 to 4.330.880.27 to 2.851.190.74 to 1.910.510.23 to 1.10
P-trend0.05P-trend0.41P-trend0.06P-trend0.2P-trend0.04P-trend0.79P-trend0.12P-trend0.21
Duration of exposure at substantial level‡ (years)
 <101.070.55 to 2.081.020.40 to 2.623.141.43 to 6.881.380.43 to 4.470.820.32 to 2.051.430.49 to 4.173.161.21 to 8.292.170.61 to 7.67
 10–251.330.62 to 2.821.290.44 to 3.740.820.24 to 2.761.130.29 to 4.332.10.59 to 7.450.760.08 to 7.101.720.41 to 7.160.830.09 to 7.52
 ≥251.180.38 to 3.730.530.06 to 4.541.410.65 to 3.100.410.09 to 1.812.440.59 to 10.06NA0.870.28 to 2.660.890.24 to 3.39
P-trend0.47P-trend0.96P-trend0.15P-trend0.41P-trend0.15P-trend0.59P-trend0.4P-trend0.88
Cumulative exposure
 Lowest tertile1.130.69 to 1.841.570.85 to 2.892.331.34 to 4.050.410.12 to 1.361.470.89 to 2.451.480.75 to 2.932.581.31 to 5.061.040.37 to 2.92
 Middle tertile1.590.97 to 2.611.40.71 to 2.781.60.92 to 2.761.30.65 to 2.610.90.51 to 1.611.080.51 to 2.290.870.48 to 1.590.910.44 to 1.89
 Highest tertile0.830.44 to 1.580.630.23 to 1.711.060.67 to 1.700.680.35 to 1.312.281.04 to 4.990.580.12 to 2.751.370.85 to 2.200.630.30 to 1.31
P-trend0.4P-trend0.77P-trend0.15P-trend0.38P-trend0.08P-trend0.91P-trend0.19P-trend0.25
Exposure metric Styrene Any MAH
Unexposed†1111
Ever exposure1.290.60 to 2.770.980.31 to 3.071.510.78 to 2.940.610.20 to 1.821.020.82 to 1.281.070.78 to 1.461.220.95 to 1.560.980.71 to 1.34
Duration of exposure
 <100.910.30 to 2.760.480.06 to 3.921.60.25 to 10.03NA0.980.70 to 1.351.150.75 to 1.781.210.81 to 1.801.090.65 to 1.81
 10–251.260.17 to 9.563.770.51 to 28.010.650.12 to 3.600.70.08 to 6.401.050.76 to 1.4610.63 to 1.611.330.89 to 1.991.320.81 to 2.14
 ≥2520.56 to 7.120.710.08 to 6.651.840.84 to 4.040.680.19 to 2.431.050.72 to 1.531.030.62 to 1.741.170.85 to 1.600.770.50 to 1.17
P-trend0.32P-trend0.9P-trend0.18P-trend0.45P-trend0.75P-trend0.85P-trend0.18P-trend0.47
Duration of exposure at substantial level‡(years)
 <100.350.07 to 1.88NA1.590.14 to 18.49NA0.930.57 to 1.530.920.45 to 1.861.911.03 to 3.570.560.19 to 1.69
 10–251.290.08 to 21.667.050.60 to 82.430.470.09 to 2.38NA1.070.56 to 2.060.750.24 to 2.281.70.90 to 3.221.130.49 to 2.63
 ≥252.630.63 to 10.99NA2.280.94 to 5.550.640.14 to 3.011.830.68 to 4.981.970.53 to 7.371.410.81 to 2.460.630.27 to 1.48
P-trend0.33P-trend0.74P-trend0.18P-trend0.23P-trend0.45P-trend0.81P-trend0.04P-trend0.35
Cumulative exposure
 Lowest tertile1.30.45 to 3.820.560.07 to 4.671.090.34 to 3.51NA1.270.93 to 1.731.30.85 to 1.991.140.76 to 1.691.160.71 to 1.89
 Middle tertile0.910.22 to 3.862.040.44 to 9.436.041.63 to 22.42NA1.020.73 to 1.421.010.63 to 1.621.481.04 to 2.101.030.65 to 1.64
 Highest tertile1.960.40 to 9.55NA0.380.08 to 1.791.260.38 to 4.150.720.48 to 1.060.840.49 to 1.431.080.77 to 1.510.830.53 to 1.29
P-trend0.46P-trend0.96P-trend0.45P-trend0.77P-trend0.32P-trend0.76P-trend0.21P-trend0.53
  • *ORs adjusted for age (years, continuous), ancestry (European/sub-Saharan African/other/unknown), first-degree family history of PCa (yes/no/unknown), household income ($C<$C30 000/$C30 000–79 999/$C80 000+/unknown or prefers not to respond), education (primary or secondary/college or university), body mass index (kg/m2, continuous), type two diabetes (yes/no), alcohol intake (drink-years), smoking (pack-years) and occupational physical activity (in metabolic equivalents – hours per day). ORs are not adjusted for exposure to other monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  • †Subjects never exposed to the compound or only exposed within the 5 years before interview (controls) or diagnosis (cases).

  • ‡Substantial level defined as exposure at medium or high concentration level for more than 5% of work-week.

  • BTX, benzene, toluene or xylene.