Table 2

Occupational carcinogens evaluated in the IARC Monographs volumes 1–120 and comparison with two previous published listings

AgentVolume†Year†Primary exposure routes‡Human cancers with sufficient evidence§Quantitative exposure- response data availableIncluded in Siemiatycki et al 9 Included in Doll and Peto3 Occupational exposure settings¶Class
IngestionInhalationDermal contact
1,2-Dichloropropane1102017xBiliary tractManufacture of plastic products, paints and other chemicals; printing; car paintingChemicals
1,3-Butadiene972008xHaematolymphatic organsxManufacture of industrial chemicals, rubber products and plastic products; petroleum refining and petrochemical industries; building constructionChemicals
2-Naphthylamine41973xxUrinary bladderxxManufacture of industrial chemicals and dyesChemicals
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin691997xxxAll cancers combinedxxManufacture of chemicals;
herbicide handling and spraying; waste incineration
4-Aminobiphenyl11972xxUrinary bladderxxManufacture of chemicals and rubberChemicals
Acid mists, strong inorganic541992xxxLarynxxManufacture of soaps and detergents, phosphate fertilisers, lead batteries and other chemicals;
electroplating and pickling
Airborne particles
Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds†21973xxLung, skin, bladderxxxManufacture of glass, pesticides and other chemicals; agricultural settings; mining, smelting and refining of metals; medical and veterinary proceduresMetals and metal compounds
Asbestos (all forms, including actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysotile, crocidolite, tremolite)21973xLung, mesothelioma, larynx, ovaryxxxMining, processing, transportation and handling of asbestos; work in shipyards; manufacture and use of asbestos-containing productsAirborne particles
Benzene71974xxLeukaemia (acute myeloid)xxxManufacture and use of paints, rubber products, glues and other chemicals;
distribution and handling of petrol; shoe manufacturing and repair
Benzidine11972xxBladderxxManufacture of chemicals, dyes, rubbers and plasticsChemicals
Beryllium and beryllium compounds581993xxLungxxBeryllium extraction, processing and fabrication;
manufacture of electrical equipment, electronic components, aerospace materials; dental laboratory procedures
Metals and metal compounds
Bis(chloromethyl)ether; chloromethyl methyl ether (technical grade)41974xLungxYesManufacture of chemicals;
laboratory procedures
Cadmium and cadmium compounds581993xLungxxProduction, refining, and processing of cadmium and its alloys; manufacture of batteries and pigmentsMetals and metal compounds
Chromium (VI) compoundsSup 71987xLungxxYesProduction and use of chromate pigments and paints; chrome plating;
work in chrome-alloy foundries
Metals and metal compounds
Coal-tar pitch351985xxLung, skinxProduction of coal-tar products; roofing and surface coating activitiesChemical mixtures
Engine exhaust, diesel1052013xLungxRail, truck, and bus operation and mechanical maintenance; mining; firefightingAirborne complex mixtures
Formaldehyde882006xxNasopharynx, leukaemiaxManufacture of formaldehyde and other chemicals; histopathology and anatomy dissections; hospital disinfection; embalmingChemicals
Ionising radiation (all types)**100D2012None specifiedxxxOutdoor work involving sun exposure; nuclear fuel production and use; air travel; mining; human and veterinary medicineRadiation and radionuclides
Leather dust251981xNasal cavity and paranasal sinusManufacture, processing and repair of leather, boots and shoesAirborne particles
Lindane (see also hexachlorocyclohexanes)1132015*xxNon-Hodgkin’s lymphomaxManufacture of lindane; treatment of wood and wooden structures; agricultural application on livestock and cropsChemicals
Mineral oils, untreated or mildly treated31973xxSkinxParaffin processing; manufacture of metal products; metal workingChemical mixtures
Nickel compounds491990xxxLung, nasal cavity and paranasal sinusesxxxMining, smelting and refining of nickel; production of nickel alloys, stainless steel and batteries; electroplating; paint production and useMetals and metal compounds
ortho-Toluidine992010xxUrinary bladderManufacture of ortho-toluidine and dyes, pigments, and some rubber chemicals; clinical and pathological laboratoriesChemicals
Outdoor air pollution**1092016xLungxWhere majority of working time is spent in polluted outdoor environments (eg, urban traffic police, professional drivers, street vendors)Airborne particles
Particulate matter in outdoor air pollution1092016xLungxAirborne particles
Pentachlorophenol1172016*xxNon-Hodgkin’s lymphomaxManufacture of PCP and other chemicals; agricultural settings; treatment of wood products; waste incinerationChemicals
Plutonium782001Bone, liver, lungxNuclear industry workersRadiation and radionuclides
Polychlorinated biphenyls1072016xxMalignant melanomaxManufacture of PCB capacitors; manufacture and repair of transformers; waste incineration and recycling; firefightingChemical mixtures
Radioiodines, including iodine-131††782001ThyroidxWorkers involved in nuclear accident clean-upRadiation and radionuclides
Radionuclides, alpha-particle emitting, internally deposited**782001None specifiedxMining and processing of uranium and other minerals; nuclear industry workers; human and veterinary medicineRadiation and radionuclides
Radionuclides, beta-particle emitting, internally deposited**782001None specifiedxRadiation and radionuclides
Radium-224 and its decay products§782001BoneLuminising industriesRadiation and radionuclides
Radium-226 and its decay products782001Bone, mastoid process, paranasal sinusRadiation and radionuclides
Radium-228 and its decay products782001Bone, mastoid process, paranasal sinusRadiation and radionuclides
Radon-222 and its decay products431988LungxMining and other underground work; mineral processingRadiation and radionuclides
Shale oils351985xSkinxMining and production of shale oils and products; manufacturing of cotton textilesChemical mixtures
Silica dust, crystalline, in the form of quartz or cristobalite681997xLungxxMining and quarrying operations; foundries; ceramics, cement and glass industries; construction activitiesAirborne particles
Solar radiation**551992Skin (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma)xOutdoor work with sun exposureRadiation and radionuclides
Soot31973xxLung, skinxxIndustries and tasks with exposure to combustion products (eg, coke-making, chimney cleaning, incineration)Airborne particles
Sulfur mustard (see also mustard gas)91975xLungxxManufacture of mustard gas; military service in WWIChemicals
Tobacco smoke, secondhand**832004xLungWork in public settings where smoking occurs (eg, restaurants, bars, casinos, planes)Airborne complex mixtures
Trichloroethylene1062014xxKidneyManufacture of metals and plastic products; printing; textile furnishing; dry cleaning; constructionChemicals
Ultraviolet radiation**1182017*Eye, skinxxVarious work environments where welding is performedRadiation and radionuclides
Vinyl chloride71974xLiver (angiosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma)xxxManufacture of polyvinyl chlorideChemicals
Welding fumes1182017*xLungxVarious work environments where welding is performedAirborne particles
Wood dust621995xNasal cavity and paranasal sinus, nasopharynxxxForestry and logging; sawmilling; manufacture of wood products; carpentry; constructionAirborne particles
X-radiation and gamma-radiation**752000Multiple, including: breast; leukaemia; thyroid; bone; brain and central nervous system; colon; kidney; lung; oesophagus; salivary gland; skin; stomach; bladderxNuclear industry workers; human and veterinary medicine; workers involved in nuclear accident clean-upRadiation and radionuclides
  • *Monographs still in press.

  • †Volume and year of publication correspond to the first instance of a Group 1 classification for the agent.

  • ‡Routes not listed for radiations and radionuclides

  • §The cancer sites listed reflect the most recent IARC evaluation of the agent.

  • ¶Examples of potentially exposed industries, work locations and/or occupations described in the relevant monograph; do not represent exhaustive summaries of past and present exposure scenarios.

  • **Occupational and non-occupational data contributed to first Group 1 evaluation.

  • ††Occupational data contributed to subsequent Group 1 evaluation.

  • IARC, International Agency for Research on Cancer; PCB, polychlorinated biphenyl; PCP, pentachlorophenol; WWI, First World War.