Table 1

Descriptive characteristics of studied applicators by acute pesticide poisoning (APP) status

Study variablesAPP (n=41)Non-APP (n=215)P value
%%
Educational level
No formal education20.531
  Grade 1–621 5192 43
  Grade 7–814 3466 30
  Grade 9–121551 24
  Diploma(12+2)1
Marital status
  Married23 56116 540.875
  Divorced1
  Widowed1
  Single18 4496 44
Ever alcohol use26 63145 670.618
Ever smoking17.120 9.30.139
Ever khat*use12 29.335 16.30.049
Mean  SD Mean  SD
Age (years)26.6 6.127.4 5.80.413
Monthly income(birr)1090.5 489.31483.2 674.80.001
Duration of employment (years)3.1 1.64.5 2.50.001
Daily exposure (EU)†16.9 10.616.6 9.90.862
Annual exposure (EU)2973.6 2929.61663.9 2264.90.001
Cumulative exposure (EU years)8451.1 8347.15934.5 8697.80.089
Neurobehavioural symptoms (Q16 score)5.3 1.94.1 1.90.001
% N   %
Neurobehavioural symptoms (Q16 score≥4)26 63.494 43.70.021
  • *Khat is an evergreen shrub of eastern Africa and Arabia; its leaves have narcotic properties.

  • †Exposure units, estimates of occupational pesticide exposure using algorithms as described in Negatu et al 27.