Table 4

Adjusted* linear regression estimates for work hour changes due to chronic disease diagnosis at time 1 and time 2, among those participating in employment

EstimateSEp Value
Arthritis (N=3653)
 Time 1 total effects (path A)−0.7010.6600.288
 Time 2 total effects (path C+(path A×path B))0.1960.5800.736
 Time 2 total effect estimate
  Direct effect (path C)0.4790.5490.383
  Effect mediated through time 1 work status (path A×path B)−0.2830.2670.289
 Model fit: CFI=0.989, TLI=0.978; RMSEA 0.015 (0.009–0.021)
Back problems (N=4439)
 Time 1 total effects (path A)0.4470.5680.432
 Time 2 total effects (path C+(path A×path B))−0.0570.5660.920
 Time 2 total effect estimate
  Direct effect (path C)−0.2820.5070.577
  Effect mediated through time 1 work status (path A×path B)0.2260.2870.431
 Model fit: CFI=0.942, TLI=0.889; RMSEA 0.027 (0.023–0.030)
Diabetes (N=1029)
 Time 1 total effects (path A)0.0841.0880.939
 Time 2 total effects (path C+(path A×path B))0.3821.0850.725
 Time 2 total effect estimate
  Direct effect (path C)0.3351.0460.749
  Effect mediated through time 1 work status (path A×path B)0.0470.6090.939
 Model fit: CFI=0.966, TLI=0.939; RMSEA 0.023 (0.013–0.032)
Hypertension (N=2946)
 Time 1 total effects (path A)−0.7770.6370.223
 Time 2 total effects (path C+(path A×path B))0.1730.6890.802
 Time 2 total effect estimate
  Direct effect (path C)0.4780.6370.453
  Effect mediated through time 1 work status (path A×path B)−0.3050.2540.229
 Model fit: CFI=0.989, TLI=0.978; RMSEA 0.013 (0.006–0.018)
Heart disease (N=803)
 Time 1 total effects (path A)−2.4521.2230.045
 Time 2 total effects (path C+(path A×path B))−0.5461.310.677
 Time 2 total effect estimate
  Direct effect (path C)0.4021.1940.736
  Effect mediated through time 1 work status (path A×path B)−0.9490.4710.044
 Model fit: CFI=0.970, TLI=0.946; RMSEA 0.022 (0.007–0.033).
  • Path model corresponds to figure 1 and is stratified by a chronic health condition of interest. Negative estimates indicate lower than expected work hours.

  • A positive and larger estimate indicates an increase in the likelihood of an outcome.

  • *Estimate adjusted for baseline measures of sex, age (grouped) comorbidities, body mass index (grouped), occupational strength requirements, self-reported depression, marital status, geographic location, survey year and work hours. Based on the process of selecting respondents, each model may consist of a different subsample of the overall cohort and may to some extent overlap.

  • CFI, comparative fit index; RMSEA, root mean square error of approximation; TLI, Tucker-Lewis index.