Table 5

Cross-shift changes in lung function and nose congestion by exposure category among grain and animal feed industry workers in Norway*

ExposureΔFVC (mL)ΔFEV1 (mL)ΔDL,CO (mmol/min/Pa)AR ΔM1 (cm2)AR ΔV1 (cm3)AR ΔM2 (cm2)AR ΔV2 (cm3)
Grain dust (mg/m3)
 0 (referents)0000000
 0.09–0.667 (−60 to 194)57 (−46 to 161)153 (−238 to 544)−0.08 (−0.19 to 0.04)−0.08 (−0.31 to 0.14)0.03 (−0.08 to 0.14)0.06 (−0.77 to 0.89)
 0.61–1.365 (−50 to 181)−27 (−121 to 67)−87 (−440 to 265)0.15 (0.26 to0.05)0.23 (0.43 to0.02)−0.005 (−0.11 to 0.10)0.30 (−0.46 to 1.1)
 1.31–1429 (−84 to 142)17 (−76 to 109)−64 (−410 to 281)0.12 (0.22 to0.02)−0.16 (−0.36 to 0.05)−0.03 (−0.13 to 0.07)0.006 (−0.74 to 0.76)
Endotoxin (EU/m3)
 0 (referents)0000000
 15–35046 (−72 to 165)11 (−86 to 108)235 (−129 to 598)0.18 (0.29 to0.08)0.28 (0.49 to0.07)0.03 (−0.07 to 0.014)0.40 (−0.39 to 1.19)
 360–1000103 (−5 to 211)61 (−27 to 149)−147 (−475 to 181)−0.10 (−0.20 to 0.004)−0.15 (−0.34 to 0.05)−0.002 (−0.10 to 0.09)−0.06 (−0.78 to 0.67)
 1200–11 000−19 (−144 to 106)−62 (−164 to 40)−95 (−480 to 289)−0.08 (−0.19 to 0.04)−0.05 (−0.28 to 0.17)−0.05 (−0.15 to 0.06)0.09 (−0.74 to 0.91)
Bacteria (counts/m3)
 0 (referents)0000000
 0.28×104–14.99×10465 (−47 to 177)−14 (−101 to 73)191 (−156 to 537)0.16 (0.26 to0.05)0.24 (0.45 to0.04)0.02 (−0.08 to 0.12)0.17 (−0.60 to 0.93)
 15×104–47×10490 (−24 to 204)109 (20 to 198)−37 (−384 to 310)−0.09 (−0.19 to 0.02)−0.14 (−0.34 to 0.06)−0.008 (−0.11 to 0.09)0.11 (−0.64 to 0.86)
 58×104–240×104−15 (−141 to 110)−78 (−176 to 20)−240 (−613 to 133)−0.11 (0.23 to 0.006)−0.09 (−0.032 to 0.13)−0.03 (−0.14 to 0.08)0.09 (−0.74 to 0.92)
Fungal spores (counts/m3)
 0 (referents)0000000
 1×104–1.5×10418 (−94 to 130)45 (−49 to 138)159 (−200 to 518)−0.10 (−0.20 to 0.01)−0.15 (−0.36 to 0.06)0.01 (−0.09 to 0.11)0.08 (−0.67 to 0.83)
 1.6×104–5.4×104143 (29 to 258)38 (−57 to 133)−138 (−497 to 221)0.13 (0.24 to0.02)−0.13 (−0.35 to 0−08)−0.05 (−0.15 to 0.05)−0.22 (−0.99 to 0.54)
 5.5×104–50×104−6 (−123 to 111)−52 (−150 to 45)−65 (−424 to 293)0.13 (0.24 to0.02)−0.21 (−0.43 to 0.006)0.03 (−0.08 to 0.13)0.54 (−0.24 to 1.33)
β-1,3-Glucans (µg/m3)
 0 (referents)0000000
 0.30–3.6070 (−46 to 186)30 (−66 to 126)44 (−318 to 407)0.13 (0.24 to0.02)−0.17 (−0.39 to 0.04)0.08 (−0.02 to 0.18)0.51 (−0.25 to 1.28)
 3.70–18.886 (−21 to 194)31 (−59 to 120)19 (−322 to 360)0.11 (0.22 to0.01)0.20 (0.40 to0.01)−0.08 (−0.17 to 0.009)−0.26 (−0.97 to 0.45)
 19.0–150−29 (−158 to 100)−139 (−531 to 254)−104 (−500 to 290)−0.12 (−0.24 to 0.004)−0.09 (−0.32 to 0.14)0.01 (−0.10 to 0.12)0.24 (−0.60 to 1.08)
  • Values are presented as coefficients (95% CI). Bold values indicate p≤0.05.

  • *Workers without RPE were selected (n=92).

  • AR, acoustic rhinometry; ΔFEV1, difference in forced expired volume in the first second; ΔFVC, difference in forced vital capacity; ΔDL,CO, difference in CO diffusion capacity of the lung; RPE, respiratory protective equipment.