Table 2

Personal samples—ultrafine particles—working environment

AuthorType of workPlacement of measurement equipmentType of instrumentResults
Møller33Airport employantsPersonal exposure (equipment fixed to a belt)NanotracerBaggage handlers: GM 3.7×106
Catering drivers, cleaning staff, airside security: GM 1.2–2.0×104
Jørgensen et al13Simulated restaurant cook exposurePersonal exposure by use of silicon tubing fixed on test person in breathing zone.SMPSAM: 5.3×103–3.5×105
Maximum peak: 1.1×106
Cumulated exposure: 5.7×106–7.3×107
Sjaastad16Cooking: Frying of meat bacon with electric and gas stovesPersonal exposure by use of silicon tubing fixed on test person in breathing zone.SMPSMaximum peak: 8.96×105
Mode: change between stove types
Bruske-Hohlfeld17Surgical smokePersonal samplesCPC3007Mean values between 74–1.22×104
maximum: 4.9×105
Andéasson18PerinectomyPersonal samples (2–3 cm from breathing air) and stationary (3 m from smoke generation)PtrakPersonal sampling:
Median, 8.0×102, maximum: 5.2×105
Stationary measurements:
Median 6.2×103; maximum 7.7×104
Freund11Paving and road construction activitiesPersonal samples, Industrial hygienist held the probe approximately. 0.6 m to the side of the worker’s headPtrakAverage
Paving: 2.3×104–7.0×104
Milling: 1.9×104–1,11×105
Pothole repair: 3.69×104–4.6×104
Peaks: 4.7×105
Brand6Welding under a fume hood.60 cm from welding process, represents approximately the distance between the welding process and breathing zone of the welderFMPSMean average:
Laser: 5×107
MIG aluminium: 5×106
MMAW/MAG/MIGsold/RSW/TIG: 2.1–2.6×106
size distribution:
TIG: 16 nm (100%), MAG 108 (54%)
RSW: 11 nm (99%)
other: 114–143 nm (24–54% ultrafine)
Zimmer34Gas metal arc welding1–20 cm from welding in the horizontal and vertical directionsSMPSChoice of welding alloy had a marked effect on particle number size distribution.
Size distribution: multimodal
  • AM, arithmetic mean; GM, geometric mean; MAG, metal-active gas; MMAW, Manual metal arc welding; MIG, Metal inert gas welding; MIGsold, Metal inert gas soldering on zinc plated base material.