Table 1

Research studies of exposure of ultrafine particles in working environment—with stationary sampling methods

AuthorType of workPlacement of measurement equipmentType of instrumentResults
Lehnert7WeldingClose to welder (different distances)SMPSMedian, IQR total: 6.72×104 (4.7–9.7×104)
GMAW: 6.3×104 (5.3–8.8×104) FCAW: 4.9×104 (4.4–7.8×104
TIG: 1.1×105 (9.6×104–1.6×105) SMAW: 5.4 (4.1–7.7×104
Gomes8WeldingClose to welder different distances (welder mask, 3060 cm)SMPSAverage electrical mobility diameter: MAG: 137.4±2.5 nm, FSW. 49.5±2.2 nm
Number of particles: MAG 9.75×103, FSW. 1.14×104
Kim9Rubber Manufacturing industryMobile cart, 1.5 m from groundELPIPeak 15 min conc: 5.45×105
Elihn10Asphalt workClose vicinity to newly produced asphalt—also mobile measurementsPtrak
SMPS
Paving Average/median 3.4×104
IQR: 1.3×104–7.5×104
peak concentrations 1·105–2.2×105, mode: 70 nm
Elihn and Berg127 Industrial Plants1–3 m from job activitiesPtrakFettling of aluminium: median 1.30×105, Peak: 4.43×105, IQR 1.02–1.53×105
Concrete work: median 1.2×104–2.2×104, Peak: 1.45×105–4.42×105, IQR 7×103–2.1×104.
Peters23Engine Machining and Assembly HallMobile cartCPC3007
OPC
15–150 times greater than outside factory
GM >106 natural gas burners heating the supply air
GM: 250–750×103 due to metalworking operations
Cheng24Iron foundry: Metal melting, pouring, moulding processesCasting areaSMPSAM: 7.06×104 (SD 4.24×104) GM. 6.14×104 (GSD 1.66)
Mode: 46.1 nm
Heitbrink25Engine Machining and Assembly FacilityMapping in the facility areaCPC3007<105 during summer
3×105–7.5×105 during winter, depending on heating systems
Kero26Ferro alloy industryTapping areaELPIMaximum peak 1.2×107 (readout) tapping area ferrosilicon furnace)
Maximum peak 6×106 (silicomanganese furnace)
Bimodal size distribution (20 nm and 310 nm)
Evans27Grey Iron foundryDifferent locationsCPC, ELPIGM 3.3×104–1.6×106
Evans28Carbon Nanofibre ProductionMobile sampling platform 1.5 m from groundELPI
FMPS
Elevated conc. up to 1.15×106
Source: thermal treatment of CNF
Primary mode: 200 and 250 nm
Kuhlbusch29Carbon Black Production1–3 m from packagingSMPSUltrafine particles were most likely attributed to sources like forklift and gas heater emission
Wake30Industries with use or handling of ultrafine powdersDifferent companies and a research laboratoryMaximum: 3.8×106
Thomassen31Primary aluminium smelterInside the crane cabin and in the prebake potroomSMPSMaximum peak 3×105–4.5×105 (read out of figures)
Baxter32FirefightersStanding in face-level of 1.68 m in different fire scenariosM100XPNo specific concentrations reported.
70–91% in the UFP range
  • CNF, carbon nanofibers; CPC, Condensation Particle Counter; ELPI, Electrical Low Pressure Impactor; FCAW, gas metal arc welding with flux-cored wire; FMPS, Fast Mobility Particle Sizer; FSW, friction-stir welding; GSD, geometric; GM, geometric mean; HEPA, high-efficiency particulate air; MAG, metal-active gas; M100X P, Wide range particle spectrometer model M100XP; OPC, optical particle sizer; RSW, Resistance spot welding; SMAW, shielded metal arc welding; SMPS, scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Spectrometer; TIG, tungsten inert gas welding; UFP, ultrafine particles.